TUKI ENGLISH-SWAHILI DICTIONARY
KAMUSI YA  KIINGEREZA-KISWAHILI

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F,f n herufi ya sita katika alfabeti ya

Kiingereza.

fa n (mus) noti ya nne katika mfumo wa Solfa.

Fabian adj (of person) -enye kukawilisha kwa hila ili kumchosha adui. n (GB) (mfuasi) mwenye kuleta mabadiliko ya Kijamaa taratibu.

fable n 1 hekaya (za kufunza maadili).

2 kauli za uwongo. 3 ngano fupi adj -a kubuniwa. ~r n. fabulist n 1 mtungaji ngano, mwandishi wa kisa. 2 mwongo. vt (arch) 1 simulia hadithi za kubuni. 2 eleza uwongo.

fabric n 1 (aina ya) kitambaa. 2 (arch) jengo. 3 (of a building) kiunzi; (of a society) mfumo.

fabricate vt 1 (construct) tengeneza,

jenga. 2 (invent) buni, tunga, zua (jambo la uwongo), ghushi (hali). fabrication n. fabricator n.

fabulous adj 1 -a uwongo; -a kubuniwa; -a kuishi katika ngano tu; -a ajabu. 2 (colloq) -zuri sana. ~ly adv sana!

facade n upande wa mbele wa nyumba; (fig) sura ya kinafiki.

face n 1 uso, wajihi fall on one's ~

anguka kifudifudi. bring two parties ~ to ~ kutanisha pande mbili ili zikabiliane. come ~ to ~ with somebody kutana uso kwa uso. look somebody in the ~ kazia mtu macho. be unable to look somebody in the ~ shindwa kumtazama mtu kwa sababu ya aibu au woga. set one's ~ against somebody pinga sana. show one's ~ tokea, onekana, jitokeza ili kuonekana. in (the) ~ of kabiliwa na, licha ya I could do nothing in the ~ of these problems sikuweza kufanya lolote nilipokabiliwa na matatizo haya. fly in the ~ of pinga waziwazi. in one's~ ; in the ~ usoni, pajini; pasipo kujaribu kuficha death stared at him in the ~ alijikuta kwenye mauti. to one's ~ bayana (bila kuficha au kuogopa) tell him so to his ~ mweleze bayana. 2 (compounds)

face

~ ache n kipanda uso. ~ card n karata ya sura ya mzungu. ~ cloth n taulo ndogo ya kunawia uso. ~ cream n krimu ya uso. ~ lift(ing) n operesheni ya ngozi ya uso (kufanya uonekane laini/wa kijana). ~ powder n poda ya uso. 3 (expression/look) sura. keep a straight ~ -toonyesha hisia. make/ pull ~s geuza/finya uso. put on/wear a long ~ onekana mwenye kufikiri sana au kuhuzunika. 4 (various senses) have the ~ (to do something) thubutu. lose ~ adhirika. put a good/bold/brave ~ on fanya ionekane kuwa nzuri, -wa na ujasiri wa kukabili jambo. put a new ~ on badili sura ili ionekane tofauti. save (one's) ~ jiepusha na aibu. ~ saver n tendo la kuepusha aibu . ~ saving n, adj. on the ~ of it inavyoonekana. 5 sura, sehemu ya mbele north ~ of the mountain upande wa kaskazini wa mlima a diamond has many ~s almasi ina sura nyingi. ~ value n thamani liyoandikwa. (fig) at ~ value bila kuangalia kwa undani; (fig) jinsi kitu au mtu anavyoonekana kijuujuu. 6 ukubwa na mtindo wa sura ya kalibu ya kuchapa. ~less adj (fig) -sojulikana/tambulika. vt 1 elekea, tazama, kabili the house ~s the bank nyumba inatazamana na benki. About/Left/Right ~ (US mil. commands) = (GB) About/ Left/Right turn) nyuma/kushoto/ kulia geuka. 2 kabili (kwa kujiamini). ~ it out kabili kishujaa. ~ the music kabili matatizo/hatari n.k. (bila kuogopa). ~ up to kubali hali ilivyo. let's ~ it (colloq) lazima tukiri. 3 tambua kuwepo kwa. 4 kabili the problem that ~s us tatizo ambalo linatukabili. 5 ~ (with) funika kwa tabaka la kitu kingine n (GB dated, colloq) tatizo kubwa linalomkabili mtu ghafla au pasipo kutegemea. facial adj -a uso. facial massage n kukanda na kupodoa uso. facing n 1 kibandiko. 2 mkono, mpako (wa rangi au kitu tofauti)

k.m. kwenye ukuta.

facet n uso/sehemu: upande mmoja wa

jiwe au kito kilichokatwa; (fig) kipengere.

facetious adj -chekeshi, kebehi,

-a mzaha, -a utani (mbaya). ~ly adv. ~ness n.

facile n -epesi kufanyika au kupatikana; -sio na maana, -epesi mno; (of speech, of writing) -a kufanyika kwa urahisi pasipo kujali ubora wake. facility n 1 (ease) urahisi, wepesi, hali iwezeshayo mtu kujifunza kitu kwa urahisi. 2 (pl) vifaa, nyenzo. facilitate vt (of an object, process) rahisisha, punguza shida, saidia.

facsimile n nakala halisi ya mwandiko, mchoro, picha.

fact n 1 tendo, jambo ambalo limetendeka au limefanywa. accessary before the ~ (leg) mtu aliyemsaidia mhalifu kabla ya tendo kufanyika. accessary after the ~ (leg) mtu aliyemsaidia mhalifu baada ya tendo. 2 ukweli, jambo la hakika. a ~ of life ukweli usioepukika. the ~s of life (colloq, euphem) maelezo kuhusu jinsi watu wanavyozaliana (kama wanavyosimuliwa watoto). ~ finding adj -enye kutafuta/ kuchunguza ukweli. in ~; in point of ~; as a matter of ~ kwa kweli. ~ual adj -enye ukweli. ~um n (leg) kanuni, taarifa ya kweli.

faction n 1 kikundi kidogo ndani ya

kundi zima. 2 ugomvi baina ya vikundi tofauti vya chama au jumuiya moja. factious adj.

factitious adj (formal) -liobuniwa, bandia; -si -a asili.

factor n 1 (arith) zao mtiririko; namba

kamilifu. 2 kweli/hali inayosaidia kuleta matokeo; kipengele 3. wakala; mtu anayenunua na kuuza kwa riba. ~ize vt tafuta zao mtiririko.

factory n 1 kiwanda. 2 (hist) kituo cha biashara katika nchi ya kigeni.

factotum n (general) ~ mtumishi wakazi zote.

fail

faculty n 1 welekevu (ustadi, uwezo) wa kufanya tendo lolote be in possession of all one's faculties wa na akili timamu. 2 weza kusikia, kusema, kuelewa, kuona n.k. 3 (university) kitivo cha chuo kikuu. 4 (US) wahadhiri wote katika chuo kikuu; wahadhiri, maprofesa wa kitivo.

fad n mtindo wa muda; kivutio. ~dy

adj -enye mambo mengi ya kupenda na kutopenda; chaguzi. ~dily adv. ~dist n.

fade vt,vi 1 ~ (away) fifisha; fifia; chujusha; chujuka. 2 (of colour) pauka; pausha the colour of the dress ~ed rangi ya gauni ilichujuka. 3 (cinema/radio/broadcasting) punguza/pungua sauti. ~ up/in ongeza sauti.

faeces (US feces) n (pl) mavi, kinyesi.

faerie; faery n see fairy.

fag n (colloq) 1 kazi ya kuchosha/ ngumu. 2 (sl) sigara. 3 (US, sl derog) mende, mfiraji; mmendewa, mfirwaji. vt,vi 1 ~ (at) (colloq) fanya kazi ya kuchosha. 2 ~ (out) (colloq) (of work) chosha sana the work ~ged him out kazi ilimchosha sana. ~ged (out) adj -liochoka kabisa. ~-end n 1 (colloq) mabaki, kitu kilichosalia/kisichofaa. 2 kipande cha sigara kilichotupwa; kichungi. ~got/(US also -~ot) n 1 tita (la kuni, la pao za chuma). 2 maini yaliyotiwa viungo. 3 (US sl. derog) mende, mfiraji.

Fahrenheit n Farenhaiti: pimajoto (yenye kuonyesha maji kuganda katika digrii 32 na kuchemka katika digrii 212).

faience n (F) vyombo vya udongo vilivyotiwa nakshi.

fail1 n (only in) without ~ bila kukosa.

fail2 vi,vt 1 ~ (in) shindwa, feli, -tofaulu they ~ed the examination walifeli/walishindwa/hawakufaulu mtihani. 2 (of examiners) felisha, angusha the examiners ~ed the

faint

whole class watahini walifelisha darasa lote. 3 (often with an indirect object) haribika, kosekana, -totosheleza the crops ~ed because of cold mazao yaliharibika kwa sababu ya baridi the rain ~ed this year mvua hazikuwa za kutosha mwaka huu. ~ safe (attrib adj) (of a mechanical device) kinga, chombo chenye uwezo wa kuepusha hatari. 4 (of health, eyesight etc) dhoofika, pungua nguvu. 5 acha, sahau, kosa; (in many cases with the inf. making a neg. of an affirm) we never ~ to write hatusahau/hatuachi kuandika his hopes ~ed to materialize matumaini yake hayakufanikiwa. 6 filisika the parastatals ~ed mashirika ya umma yamefilisika. 7 ~ in -tokuwa imara, tokamilika Juma is strong but ~s in endurance Juma ana nguvu lakini si mvumulivu words ~ me nashindwa kujieleza. ~ing n kasoro, dosari (la tabia) prep bila. ~ure n 1 kushindwa, kutofaulu. 2 hali ya kutofanyika kwa jambo heart ~ure kushindwa kwa moyo kufanya kazi kama kawaida yake. 3 ushinde; jaribio au jambo lililoshindikana; mshinde. 4 (bankruptcy) kufilisika. 5 kudharau, kuacha au kutoweza (kufanya jambo).

faint adj 1 (of things perceived through the senses) dhaifu; hafifu; -enye hofu. 2 (of things in the mind) -a mashaka, si dhahiri I haven't the ~est idea sina habari hata kidogo, sielewi kabisa. 3 (of the body's movements and functions) -nyonge, nyong'-onyevu. 4 (pred only) (of persons) -a kizunguzungu; -enye kuelekea kupoteza fahamu. 5 (pred only) (of persons) -liochoka/dhaifu sana. 6 (of actions) dhaifu. 7 ~ heart n woga ~ hearted adj -oga. ~ly adv. ~ness. vi 1 zirai, ghumiwa. 2 fifia, dhoofu. 3 kuwa dhaifu, fifia. n kuzirai. in a (dead) ~ zirai kabisa.

fair1 adj 1 (just) -a haki, -a kutopendelea. give/get a ~ hearing

faith

sikilizwa, -pa/pata nafasi ya kujitetea. ~ minded adj -siopendelea upande wowote. 2 -a kadiri, -a watani, -zuri kiasi, -zuri vya kuridhisha ~ condition hali nzuri the goods arrived in ~ condition bidhaa ziliwasili katika hali nzuri vya kutosha. 3 (of the weather) -zuri na kavu. ~ weather friend n rafiki wakati wa neema tu. 4 maridhawa, -a kuridhisha; -ingi; (of the skin/hair) -eupe; nywele nyeupe/za dhahabu. 5 safi, -sio doa/alama ~ copy nakala safi. 6 (of speeches, promises) tamu, -a kupendeza. 7 (old use) -zuri, -rembo. the ~ sex n wanawake. ~ness n. ~ ish adj. ~ish adv 1 kwa haki/idili play ~ cheza kwa haki. ~ enough (colloq) sawa, vizuri, kwa usafi. 2 (old use) kwa upole, kwa heshima. ~ly adv 1 kwa kiasi speaks English ~ly well ana sema Kiingereza vizuri kidogo. 2 (colloq) kabisa.

fair2 n 1 soko (ambalo agh. hufunguliwa katika vipindi maalum na hutoa pia huduma za starehe). a day before/after the ~ mapema mno/kwa kuchelewa mno. 2 maonyesho. ~ ground n uwanja wa maonyesho. International Trade F~ n Maonyesho ya Biashara ya Kimataifa. book ~ n maonyesho ya vitabu. ~ing n zawadi iliyonunuliwa kwenye maonyesho.

fairway n (of ship) mlango bahari unaopitika; (golf) njia safi (kati ya vishimo vya gofu na majani marefu).

fairy n 1 kichimbakazi. ~lamps/lights n vitaa vidogovidogo vya rangi vitumiwavyo kwa mapambo. ~ land n nchi ya vichimbakazi, hadithi za vichimbakazi, uongo hasa wa mtoto. 2 (sl.derog) msenge.

fait accompli n (F) jambo lililokwisha fanywa na kuhitimishwa.

faith n 1 imani. ~ cure n kuponya kwa imani. ~ healing n kuganga kwa imani. 2 (promise) ahadi,

fake

miadi. 3 dini, itikadi. 4 utiifu, uaminifu. in good ~ kwa nia njema. in bad ~ kwa nia ya kudanganya. give/pledge one's ~ to ahidi kusaidia. keep/break ~ with kuwa/tokuwa mwaminifu. ~ful adj 1 -aminifu. 2 -a kweli, halisi. 3 the ~ful n (pl) waumini (agh. Wa Kiislamu au Kikristu). ~fully adv kwa uaminifu. yours ~fully wako mwaminifu. ~fulness n. ~less adj. -danganyifu -ongo, -sioaminika. ~lessly adv. lessness n.

fake vt ~ (up) igiza kazi ya sanaa kwa udanganyifu, buni. n mwigo, bandia adj -a bandia.

falcon n 1 kipanga. ~er n mfugaji vipanga. 2 mwindaji awindaye kwa msaada wa vipanga waliofugwa. ~ry n ufugaji/uwindaji wa vipanga.

fall n 1 kuanguka; kuporomoka; maanguko. 2 (decrease) kupungua, kushuka. 3 (error) kosa, dhambi. The ~ of Man dhambi ya Adam na Hawa, Dhambi ya Asili. ~ guy n (colloq) -mwenye kuonewa, mwenye kusukumiziwa mabaya. 4 (ruin) maangamizi. 5 (death) mauti. 6 (defeat) kushindwa, kutekwa (mji). 7 (descent) mteremko. 8 kiasi cha mvua iliyonyesha a heavy ~ of rain mvua kubwa. 9 maporomoko ya maji. 10 mshuko, mpunguo wa sauti. 11 (US) majira ya majani kupukutika. vi 1 ~ (down/over) anguka, gwa; (with force in a mass) poromoka. ~on one's feet (fig) -wa na bahati. ~ short tofika. ~ short of -tofikia, punguka; (of lambs) zaliwa. ~ flat pooza, -topendeza; lala/anguka kifudifudi; (of leaves) pukutika; (of rain) -nya, -nyesha; (in drops) dondoka. ~ into (a river, hole) tumbukia let ~ angusha, bwaga. ~in love with penda/husudu kitu au mtu fulani. (to) ~ into sections fanya katika makundi madogo. ~ on (the enemy etc.) endea, shambulia, rukia (adui n.k.). ~ over one another for gombania au pigania kitu

false

kimoja. ~ under -wa chini ya/ katika. 2 (be ruined) angamia, haribika. 3 (error) kosa. 4 (from hand, slip) ponyoka. 5 (diminish) punguka, pungua; (mercury etc. in thermometer) shuka; (of temperature) zidi kuwa baridi. 6 (slope) teremka, shuka. 7 his face fell alionyesha huzuni. ~ in esteem shikwa na butwaa, pigwa na bumbuwazi. ~ sick ugua. ~ vacant (wa) wazi. 8 (special uses) ~ about (laughing/with laughter) (colloq) angua kicheko, cheka sana. ~ away acha, potea, -toonekana. ~ among angukia; kutana na. ~ asleep shikwa na usingizi, sinzia. ~ away konda; asi; (be lost) potea; (lapse) kufuru, kosa. ~ back enda nyuma, rudi. ~ back on tegemea; (decrease) punguka. ~ down on something (colloq) shindwa. ~ foul of kosana na. ~ in tumbukia; (of walls) bomoka; (soldiers) jipanga. ~ off punguka. ~ out (with somebody) kosana, gombana; (soldiers) tawanyika. ~-out n cheche za mnururisho zinazotokana na mlipuko wa bomu la nyuklia. ~through shindwa; shindikana; (of religion) asi. ~ to shika kazi; (be allotted to) -wa mali ya/kazi ya. 9 angukia Workers' day ~s on Saturday this year Sikukuu ya Wafanyakazi itaangukia Jumamosi mwaka huu. 10 tamkwa. the ~en n waliofia vitani. ~en woman n (old use) mwanamke aliyepoteza ubikira wake, asherati.

fallacy n dhana yenye kosa; hoja ya uwongo, kosa, uwongo. fallacious adj. fallaciousness n.

fallen pp of fall.

fallible adj -a kuweza kukosa, -a kuweza kuwa na kosa. fallibility n.

fallow n ardhi/shamba lililolimwa na

kuachwa bila kupandwa mbegu adj -a kulimwa na kuachwa bila kupandwa mbegu.

false adj 1 si kweli, -a uongo, si halisi.

falsetto

2 nafiki; -danganyifu; -ongo; -mbea. 3 (artificial) si -a asili. 4 -a bandia. a ~ bottom n kitako-bandia. under ~ pretences kwa udanganyifu. sail under ~ colour 1 sl (of a ship) safiri na bendera isiyo halali. 2 (fig) jifanya kuwa tofauti na ulivyo adv kwa udanganyifu. (to) play ~ danganya. ~ hood n 1 uwongo. 2 kusema uongo guilty of ~hood kosa la kusema uongo. ~ly adv. ~ness n. falsify vt 1 danganya. 2 potosha. falsification n. falsity n 1 uwongo; udanganyifu. 2 uhaini.

falsetto n sautikike (sauti ya

mwanamume ya juu inayofanana na ya kike).

falsies n (pl) (colloq) sidiria iliyojazwa

ili kukuza matiti.

falter vi,vt 1 sita. 2 (of the voice)

gugumia. ~ingly adv.

fame n see famous.

familiar adj 1 ~ with -zoefu. 2 (wellknown) -a kujulikana; (of a person) mashuhuri. 3 -a siku zote, -a kawaida. 4 -a kusuhubiana sana, -a karibu. 5 -enye kujipendekeza/ kujikomba. n rafiki, mwenzi. ~ly adv. ~ity n 1 mazoea; uzoefu. 2 urafiki; utani. 3 (knowledge) kujua sana, ujuaji. ~ity breeds contempt (prov) ukicheza na mbwa utaingia naye msikitini. 4 (pl) vitendo vya kirafiki (sana). ~ize vt 1 jizoeza. ~ize oneself with jizoeza. 2 eneza, tangaza.

family n 1 familia. 2 watoto (wa mtu fulani). 3 ahali, jamaa, aila extended ~ jamaa nuclear ~ ndugu wa karibu. 4 ukoo; nasaba. 5 kundi (la viumbe vya aina moja). 6 (attrib) -a jamii/jamaa/familia. ~ doctor n daktari wa familia. ~ hotel n hoteli yenye bei nafuu kwa familia. ~ likeness n kufanana kwa watu wa familia moja. ~ man n mtu apendaye kukaa nyumbani na familia yake; mwenye familia. ~ name n jina la ukoo. ~ planning n uzazi wa majira; upangaji (wa) familia . ~

fancy

tree n chati ionyeshayo uhusiano wa aila; shajara. in the ~ way (sl) mja mzito. familial adj -a kifamilia; -a jamii; -a ukoo.

famine n njaa, gumba; (attrib) -a njaa.famish vi,vt taabika kwa njaa, -wa na njaa; taabisha kwa njaa I am ~ed (colloq) nina njaa sana.

famous adj 1 maarufu; mashuhuri make ~ fanya maarufu. 2 (colloq) zuri sana; -a kutosha. ~ly adv. fame n umaarufu. famed adj mashuhuri.

famulus n katibu myeka; msaidizi wa

profesa; hadimu.

fan1n (colloq) shabiki.

fan2n pepeo, feni. vi,vt (fig) tia mshawasha. ~ belt n mkanda wa feni. ~ light n dirisha juu ya mlango lenye umbo la feni. vi,vt 1 pepea, punga. 2 (grain) pepeta; peta. 3 ~ up puliza moto; fukuta. 4 ~ out tanda.

fanatic n mlokole (hasa wa dini), mtuashikiliaye sana jambo bila akili adj (also ~al) -a kilokole, -a mno, -a kukithiri. ~ally adv. ~ism n.

fancier n shabiki/mpenzi wa (jambo,

mtu, mnyama fulani).

fancy n 1 ubunifu mere ~ wazo tu,

ndoto tu. 2 fikira, wazo, ndoto the ~ took him wazo lilimjia. 3 a ~ (for) mapenzi, upendeleo. take a ~ to penda. take/catch the ~ of furahisha, vutia. a passing ~ n kitu kivutiacho kwa muda mfupi. ~ free adj siopenda, -a utani/kutania, a mzahamzaha adj 1 -a kupendeza. 2 (esp of small things) -liorembwa; -a kupendeza macho; -a urembo. 3 (extravagant) -a mno, ghali sana. ~ dress n nguo iliyorembwa inayovaliwa kwenye sherehe maalum. ~ work n mashono ya urembo. 4 (sl derog) ~ man n kuwadi wa malaya. ~ woman n (derog) kimada; kipenda roho. 5 -liofugwa kwa ajili ya uzuri/urembo. 6 (US, of goods) bora. 7 -liobuniwa, -liowazi. fanciful adj 1 (of persons)

fanfare

bunifu sana, dhanifu, nayofuata ndoto tu. 2 -a njozi, -a kutunga; -enye umbo la ajabu. fanciful drawings n michoro ya ajabu. fancifully adv. vt 1 (imagine) waza, tunga moyoni, dhani just ~/~ that ona! ajabu! zuri. 2 (like) penda, vutiwa na I don't ~ his looks sivutiwi na sura yake. 3 hisi; fikiri, labda I ~ he is out nadhani ametoka I ~ so naona hivyo. 4 taka. 5 ~ oneself jiona.

fanfare n (music) mshindo wa

matarumbeta.

fang n 1 chonge, jino la mnyama (hasa kwa wala nyama). 2 jino lenye sumu (la nyoka). 3 shina la jino.

fanny n (US sl) matako; (GB) kuma.

fantastic adj 1 -a kutisha; -a ajabu ~ dreams ndoto za ajabu. 2 (of ideas, plans) -a kuwazika tu; -siowezekana; pumbavu. 3 (sl) safi John is a really ~ boy John ni mvulana safi sana! ~ally adv.

fantasy n 1 uwezo wa kubuni/ kuwaza/kutunga taswira; matokeo ya mawazo ya kinjozi. 2 ndoto, njozi, ruya. fantasize vt,vi fantasize (about) ota (ukiwa macho), waza.

fantasia n sanaa ambamo mtindo na fani ni muhimu kuliko muundo.

far adj 1 -a mbali. be ~ (from) -wa

mbali sana (kutoka); (fig) -wa tofauti kabisa na. 2 the Far East n Mashariki ya Mbali. 3 chokomeani. the ~ end mwisho, chokomeani adv mbali we did not go ~ hatukwenda mbali. ~ between mara chache. as ~ as hata, mpaka, hadi. ~ and wide kotekote as ~ as the eye can reach upeo wa macho he is not ~ off sixty yeye anakaribia (miaka) sitini. how ~? umbali gani? ~ from (let alone, not to mention, not only) licha ya, sembuse. ~ from it hasha, sivyo. ~ be it from me siwezi; sipendi, mbali, sithubutu in so ~ as I am concerned kwa kadiri inavyonihusu mimi so ~ so good mpaka hapo sasa mambo ni mazuri. (to ) go ~ to 1 enda mbali it won't

fare

go very ~ haifiki mbali sana that's going too ~ hilo linavuka mpaka. as ~ back as tangu ~ into the night hadi usiku wa manane. 2 (compounds) ~ fetched adj -sioaminika. ~ flung adj (rhet) -lioenea sana, -liotapakaa, liotawanyika. ~ reaching adj -enye athari nyingi. ~ seing adj -enye kuona mbali. ~ sighted adj -enye kuona mbali; (fig) -enye kuzingatia ya mbele, angalifu. ~ famed adj -enye kufahamika sana, maarufu. ~gone adj -lioingiliwa sana; lio zama (na ugonjwa, ulevi n.k.). ~ out tofauti kabisa, -a ajabu. 3 (with other adv & preps) ~ away mbali sana ~away beyond the river mbele sana ya mto. ~ from hata kidogo. ~ off mbali sana. by ~ kwa mbali. go ~ (of persons) enda mbali, penda sana; (of money) weza kununua bidhaa/huduma. go/carry too ~ vuka mpaka, zidi. as/so ~ as hadi, hata mpaka, kwa kadiri; (with qualifying adj & adv) sana, kwa kiasi kikubwa this is ~better hii ni afadhali sana. ~ and away (with comp and super) kwa mbali. ~ away adj -a mbali, -a zamani. ~ther adj -a mbali zaidi at the ~ther end mbali zaidi ~ther back nyuma zaidi; (later) mbele; (additional) -a zaidi adv mbali zaidi ~ther off si zaidi ya nothing is ~ther from my thoughts mawazo yetu hayatofautiani sana. ~ ther most adj mbali kabisa on the ~ ther side of the street upande wa pili wa mtaa. ~thest adj & adv mbali sana, mbele kabisa, mbele kupita kina kikuu. at the ~thest 1 mwisho kabisa. 2 (of time) kwa kuchelewa kabisa.

farce n 1 kichekesho; mchezo (jambo,hadithi) wa kuchekesha sana; (joke) utani; upuuzi. 2 matukio halisi ya upuuzi/kuchekesha. farcical adj. farcically adv.

fare1 n nauli; uchukuzi what is the ~?

fare

nauli ni kiasi gani?; (passenger) msafiri, abiria.

fare2 n (food) mlo. bill of ~ n orodha ya vyakula (vya karamu hotelini). be fond of good ~ penda sana kula. vt,vi 1 (proceed) (old use) enda, safiri; endelea how did you ~? uliendeleaje? he ~d well alifanikiwa. you may go farther and ~ worse unaweza kuendelea na kupata shida zaidi. 2 (happen) tukia, tokea. 3 (get on) -wa na hali, patwa na mambo. 4 (be entertained) tendewa, lishwa. 5 ~ forth anza safari. ~well interj. kwaheri, buriani n kuaga, maagano. say/bid well to aga, sema kwaheri adj ~ well speech/dinner hotuba/karamu ya kuagana.

farina n unga wa nafaka. ~ceous adj -a wanga.

farm n 1 shamba. ~ hand/~ worker n kibarua wa shamba. ~ yard n uwanja baina ya majengo shambani. 2 ~ house or ~ stead n nyumba ya mkulima shambani. vt,vi 1 (land) lima; (animals) fuga. 2 ~ out (to) toa kazi ikafanywe na wengine; kabidhi mtoto alelewe na mlezi. ~er n mkulima; mfugaji. ~ing n ukulima.

farrago n 1 mchanganyiko wa vitu, mparaganyo. 2 mchuuzi wa vitu mchanganyiko.

farrier n 1 mfua njumu za farasi. 2 mganga wa farasi.

farrow vi (of pigs) zaa. n vitoto vya

nguruwe; uzaaji.

fart vi (not in polite use) sura, shuta, jamba. n ushuzi.

farthing n (formerly) sarafu yenye thamani ya robo ya peni it is not worth a brass ~ haina thamani yoyote; bure ghali without a ~ bila fedha mfukoni. it does not matter/ he does not care a ~ haitishi/hajali.

fascia n see dash board.

fascinate vt,vi 1 vutia sana. 2 pumbaza kwa kukazia macho. fascinating adj. fascination n.

fascism n 1 ufashisti. 2 serikali ya

fast

mrengu wa kulia inayogandamiza watu. fascist n fashisti adj -a kifashisti.

fashion n 1 a/the ~ mtindo. after/ina ~ kwa kadri/kiasi fulani. after the ~ of kwa mtindo wa. 2 mtindo wa kisasa. be all the ~ pendwa sana. come into/go out of ~ kuingia/ kutoka kwa mitindo. follow/be in the ~ fuata mtindo. set the ~ anzisha mtindo. a man/woman of ~ shabiki wa mitindo. ~ plate picha ionyeshayo mtindo wa nguo. vt unda. ~able adj -a mtindo/-a siku hizi. a ~able hotel hoteli ya kisasa.

fast1 vi funga (kula n.k.) n 1 (period of) mfungo, saumu. 2 siku ya kufunga. break one's ~ futuru.

fast2 adj 1 imara, kikiki, madhubuti. hard and ~ rules sheria ngumu na imara. 2 amini, aminifu a ~ friend rafiki mwaminifu. 3 (of colours) -a kudumu, -siochujuka adv imara, thabiti. stand ~ simama imara (kataa kuyumbishwa). stick ~ simama imara; kwama. ~ bind, ~ find (prov) kilichofungwa imara si rahisi kupotea. play ~ and loose with badilisha msimamo mara kwa mara. ~en vt,vi 1 ~ (up/down) kaza, komea ~en all the doors komea milango yote. 2 ~ (on/upon) a nick name tunga, pachika, -pa mtu jina la utani. ~en an accusation on/upon somebody tuhumu mtu. 3 funga the window won't ~en dirisha halitafunga. 4 ~en on/upon shikilia he ~ened on her argument ameshikilia hoja yake. ~ener n kishikizo a zip ~ener zipu. ~ening n.

fast3 adj 1 -a upesi, -a haraka a ~ trip safari ya haraka. 2 (dated) (of person, his way of living) -a anasa, fujaji a ~ man mwanamume mfujaji mali, fisadi. 3 (of a watch/clock) -enye kukimbia my watch is ~ saa yangu inakimbia. 4 (of a surface) -enye kufanya iwe haraka/iwe na

fastidious

mwendo. 5 (of photographic film) -a muda mfupi adv 1 haraka, upesi he speaks ~ anasema upesi. 2 live ~ ishi kifisadi; (old use) she lives ~ by anaishi karibu.

fastidious adj (in matters of food)

-enye machagu, gumu kuridhisha; haraka kukosoa. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

fat adj 1 -a mafuta, nene; (of animals) nono a ~ man mtu mnene. ~ head n mpumbavu. 2 -liojaa a ~wallet pochi iliyojaa noti. a ~ lot (sl) nyingi sana; (ironic) kidogo sana. 3 -enye rutuba ~ lands ardhi yenye rutuba. n 1 mafuta. 2 (animal) shahamu. chew the ~ endelea kunung'unika. live off the ~ of the land ishi maisha ya anasa. the ~'s in the fire mambo yameharibika. (to) put on ~ nenepa. ~-tish adj -nene nene. ~ness n. vt nenepesha. kill the ~ted calf (fig) karibisha kwa furaha kubwa (mtu aliyerudi). ~ten vt ~ten (up) nenepesha; nonesha. ~ty adj -a mafuta, shahamu n (colloq) mnene.

fate n 1 jaala , majaliwa. as sure as ~ hakika. the F~s n miungu wa kike watatu wa Kigiriki (wa majaliwa). 2 kifo, mauti; maangamizi vt (usu pass) andikwa. it was ~d imeandikwa (na Mungu); tabiriwa kuwa. fatal adj ~ (to) -a kufisha, -a mauti; -baya fatal accident ajali ya kufisha his long absence was fatal to our plans kutokuwepo kwake kwa muda mrefu kuliharibu mipango yetu. fatal -a jaala. fatally adv. fatalism n falsafa ya jaala/majaliwa. fatalist n muumini wa falsafa ya jaala. fatalistic adj -a jaala/majaliwa. fatality n 1 msiba, baa. 2 kifo cha ajali/vita n.k. 3 mauti, athari mbaya (ya ugonjwa). ~ful adj 1 -a jaala, -a majaliwa. ~ful events matukio ya majaliwa. 2 -enye kutabiri.

father n 1 baba adoptive ~ baba wa kupanga putative ~ baba wa kudhaniwa step ~ baba wa kambo. the child is ~ to the man (prov)

fault

matendo ya utotoni yatajidhihirisha ukubwani. the wish is ~ to the thought (prov) imani yetu ni kwa yale mambo tunayotaka kuwa kweli. ~-in law n baba mkwe. ~-figure n mzee anayeheshimika (kwa ushauri wake wa kibaba). 2 (usu pl) mababu sleep with one's ~s zikwa pamoja na mababu. 3 mwanzilishi, kiongozi wa kwanza. F~s of the Church waanzilishi wa kwanza wa Kikristo katika (karne tano za mwanzo). F~ of the Nation n Baba wa Taifa. City F~s n madiwani. 4 Our (heavenly) ~ Mungu (Baba). 5 padre, kasisi; kiongozi katika nyumba ya mapadre the Holy ~ Baba Mtakatifu. 6 jina la kupanga ~ Christmas Baba Noeli. ~-hood n ubaba. ~-land n nchi ya kuzaliwa kwetu. ~less -liofiwa na baba, yatima. ~ly adj ~ly love mapenzi ya baba. vt 1 asisi jambo/ wazo. 2 kubali kuwa baba (wa mtoto/mwandishi wa kitabu n.k). 3 ~ on/upon -pa ubaba wa mtoto; twisha mzigo.

fathom n kina cha maji (futi sita, au mita 1.8), wari mbili. vt pima kina cha; elewa. ~less adj -siopimika kina; -sioeleweka.

fatigue n 1 uchovu, mavune. 2 (of metals) kuchoka (kutokana na matumizi mengi). 3 kazi ya sulubu; (of soldiers) kazi zisizo za kijeshi (kupika, kulima). ~-party n kikosi cha wanajeshi n.k. kinachopewa kazi hizo. (pl) ~s n nguo za wanajeshi. vt chosha.

fatuous adj -pumbavu, -sio na maana. ~ reply n jibu la kipumbavu. ~ly adv. fatuity; ~ness n.

faucet n (esp. US) bilula, mfereji. faugh interj Yeh! sauti ya kuonyesha hasira au kinyaa.

fault n 1 kosa, hatia, taksiri, dosari.

at ~ -enye hatia/makosa; katika hali ya kutatizwa. to a ~ kupita kiasi. find ~ (with) lalamikia. ~-finder n mtu asiyeridhirika. ~ finding n kutafuta makosa. 2 kosa, lawama the

faun

~ lies with you lawama ni yako. 3 jambo lililofanywa kwa makosa; (of tennis) mpira uliopigwa vibaya. 4 (of rocks) ufa, muatuko vt kosoa, laumu no one could ~ his implementation hakuna ambaye angeweza kukosoa utekelezaji wake. ~less adj. ~lessly adv. ~y adj -enye kosa, -baya, ovyo the work was done in a ~y manner kazi ilifanyika ovyo. ~ily adv.

faun n (Roman myth) Mungu wa mashambani mwenye pembe na miguu ya mbuzi.

fauna n fauna: mkusanyiko wa wanyama wote katika mazingira fulani.

faux pas n tendo/neno linalovunja heshima k.m. kujamba.

favour/favor n 1 fadhila win a person's ~ pata fadhila za fulani. be/stand high in somebody's ~ pendwa na mtu fulani. be in/out of ~ (with somebody) pendwa/-topendwa na. find/lose ~with somebody/in somebody's eyes pata/kosa fadhila mbele ya fulani. 2 msaada, kuunga mkono, kukubali kusaidia. in ~ of (kwa) upande wa, niaba/kuunga mkono/faida ya; kwa ajili ya. 3 upendeleo. without fear or ~kwa haki kabisa, bila kuogopa au kupendelea. 4 msaada, wema. do somebody a ~tendea mtu wema. do a ~ for somebody fanya wema/toa msaada kwa mtu fulani. 5 pambo, tunu. vt,vi 1 unga mkono, fadhili, fortune ~s the brave bahati humwendea shujaa. 2 pendelea. 3 ~ somebody with something (old use or formal) -pa fursa; fanyia jambo the child will ~ us with a song mtoto atatuimbia. 4 (of circumstances) wezesha, rahisisha. 5 (old use) fanana na, landana na the girl ~s her mother msichana yule anafanana na mama yake. ill/well~ed adj -enye sura mbaya/nzuri. 6 ~ with -pa, tolea, wezesha. ~able adj -enye kufaa; -enye kusaidia. ~ably adv. ~ite n 1 kipenzi, mpenzi. 2 the

feast

~ite (racing) farasi anayetegemewa kushinda. 3 mtu anayependelewa. ~itism n upendeleo.

fawn1 n 1 mtoto wa paa, paa mdogo

(asiye na umri wa zaidi ya mwaka). 2 (colour) rangi ya paa kama hudhurungi, madafu.

fawn2 vi (on) (of dogs) 1 onyesha furaha na upendo (kwa kurukaruka na kutikisa mkia). 2 (of persons) jipendekeza, jikomba; bembeleza.

fax vi ~something (through) (to somebody). tuma kwa faksi, faksi n 1 mfumo wa kufaksi (nakala za) nyaraka. 2 nakala iliyofaksiwa.

faze vt (usu with a neg) shtua, hangaisha, sumbua It doesn't ~ a bit hainisumbui hata kidogo.

fealty n (in feudal times) kiapo, ahadiya kumtumikia mtu take an oath of ~ kula kiapo cha uaminifu kwa bwana.

fear (dread) 1 hofu, woga. for ~ of kwa hofu ya. for ~ that/lest kwa kuhofia ili kwamba jambo lisitokee. 2 wahaka he is in ~ of his life ana wahaka wa maisha yake. 3 uwezekano no ~ (colloq) haiwezekani. 4 kicho, uchaji the ~ of God uchaji wa Mungu. ~ful adj -a kutisha, -a kuogofya a ~ful story hadithi ya kutisha. ~fully adv. ~ fulness n. ~less adj jasiri, shupavu. ~lessly adv bila hofu. ~lessness n. ~some adj (usu jokingly) -enye sura ya kutisha, -a kuogofya. vt,vi 1 ogopa, hofu. 2 chelea. 3 ~ for -wa na wasiwasi wa ~ the worst -wa na wasiwasi kuwa jambo baya limetokea au litatokea. 4 -cha, ogopa ~ God and obey your parents ogopa Mungu na watii wazazi wako.

feasible adj 1 a kuwezekana, -a kutendeka. 2 (colloq) yamkini, -a kuaminika. feasibility n uwezekano feasibility study uchunguzi wa uwezekano/hali halisi.

feast n 1 (~day) sikukuu; sherehe. 2 karamu. 3 (fig) kitulizo cha akili au hisi. vt,vi 1 (entertain) kirimu,

feat

karibisha; (delight) furahisha; (enjoy) jifurahisha. (to) ~ one's eye on something furahisha macho kwa kuangalia jambo fulani. 2 shiriki; shirikisha katika karamu; -la; lisha sana (na kusaza).

feat n tendo gumu (la ajabu, la ujasiri, la uhodari, la nguvu) lifanywalo vizuri; tendo kubwa.

feather n unyoya. a ~ in one's cap kitu cha kujivunia. as light as a ~ -epesi sana. in full/high ~s kuwa katika furaha, hali/ afya nzuri. (to) show the white ~ onyesha woga. birds of a ~ (flock together) Waarabu wa Pemba hujuana kwa vilemba. ~-bed n godoro la manyoya. vt penda mno; fanyia huruma/karimu; saidia. ~-bed the farmers toa misaada kwa wakulima. ~-brained; ~ headed adj -jinga; pumbavu; -enye mawenge. ~weight n (boxing) uzito wa unyoya. ~y adj -a laini na epesi kama unyoya. vt 1 pamba (kwa manyoya), tia manyoya. ~ one's nest 1 jitajirisha; jiletea raha, jianisi. 2 elea, pepea kama unyoya. 3 ~ one's oar pindisha kasia ili bapa likae juu ya maji.

feature n 1 sehemu ya uso (pua, midomo n.k.). 2 (pl) sura, uso. 3 sifa/sehemu muhimu the geographical ~s sura ya nchi (k.m. milima, maziwa, mabonde n.k.). 4 makala/habari maalum katika gazeti. 5 filamu (ndefu ya hadithi). vt 1 -wa sifa/sehemu muhimu ya. 2 fanya kuwa muhimu, maarufu. 3 onyesha a film that ~s a new singer filamu inayomwonyesha mwimbaji mpya. ~less adj -sio pendeza; sio na umuhimu, -sio na sifa muhimu.

February n Februari: mwezi wa pili.

feces n see faeces.

feckless adj -zembe; -sojali wajibu;

-sofanikiwa. ~ness n. ~ly adv.

fecund adj -a kuzaa sana, -enye kizazi kikubwa. ~ity n kizazi kikubwa, uzaaji.

fed pt, pp of feed.

feel

federal adj 1 -a shirikisho 2. -a kuhusu serikali ya shirikisho. ~ist n. ~ism n. federate vt,vi (of State, Society, Organizations) unganisha, ungana kuwa shirikisho. federative adj. federatively adv. federation n 1 shirikisho. 2 uundaji wa shirikisho. 3 kitendo cha kuungana.

fee n 1 ada, karo; kiingilio. 2 (legal)

mali ya kurithi estate in ~ simple mali inayorithiwa na mrithi yeyote ~ tail mali inayorithiwa na warithi wa aina fulani tu. vt 1 lipa ada/karo/kiingilio. 2 weka mtu kwa malipo (k.m. wakili).

feeble adj dhaifu, hafifu, nyonge. ~

-minded adj punguani. feebly adv. ~ness n.

feed n 1 chakula; malisho be off one's ~ -tokuwa na hamu ya chakula. 2 bomba la kupelekea vitu (malighafi) kwenye mashine; mali ghafi inayopelekwa kwenye mashine kwa bomba. ~-back n 1 mwitiko: majibu ya utekelezaji wa maazimio. 2 mwangwi katika redio. 3 (colloq) habari azitoazo mtumaji wa bidhaa kwa mtengenezaji n.k.; majibu, maoni. vt,vi 1 ~ on lisha; -la lions ~ chiefly on meat simba hula nyama ~ one's face kula kila mara. ~ oneself jilisha chakula. ~ up lisha chakula bora. be fed up (with) (fig,sl) choshwa na. ~ing-bottle chupa ya kunyonyeshea. 2. ~ to lisha/-pa chakula. 3 (chiefly of animals, colloq or hum of persons) -la chakula. 4 (of a belt) tawanya, gawa mali ghafi kwenye mashine. ~on -la (kama chakula). ~er n 1 (of plants and animals) mlaji be a large ~er wa mlishaji. 2 kitu kizidishacho au kitia nguvu kitu kingine. 3 (often attrib.) njia za reli, n.k. zinazoingia katika njia kuu. 4 chupa ya kunyonyeshea; bibu.

feel n (sing only) 1 the ~ n hisia za kugusa (mfano ugumu, ulaini, uororo n.k.). 2 the ~ n msisimko unaotokana na kuguswa au

feel

kupapaswa. 3 kugusa. 4 get the ~ of anza kuzoea. vt,vi 1 hisi, jua kwa kugusa/kushika n.k. ~ the pulse hisi/pima mapigo ya moyo. ~ one's way tembea kwa uangalifu (kama katika giza au kipofu afanyavyo), papasa; tahadhari katika kutenda mambo fulani. 2 ~ (about) (for) papasa papasa, tomasa, sunza he felt about in the dark for his bed alisunza ili aone kitanda chake. 3 (through contact) sikia I can ~ a thorn in my shoe nasikia mwiba ndani ya kiatu changu. 4 (not through contact) ona. (to) ~ the weight of something fahamu umuhimu wa jambo fulani I ~ it my duty to natambua ni wajibu wangu the chairman felt the force of his argument mwenyekiti aliona uzito wa hoja yake. ~ somebody out jaribu kujua maoni ya mtu kwa uangalifu. 5 jisikia, jiona, ona I ~ ill najisikia mgonjwa. to ~ quite oneself kujiona barabara ~ cold/ happy ona baridi/ furaha. 6 -wa na uwezo wa kuhisi a corpse does not ~ maiti hana uwezo wa kuhisi. 7 ~ for/with one; ~ pity for somebody onea huruma, hurumia. 8 ~ as if/ though hisi/jihisi kana kwamba he felt as if he was flying alijiona kana kwamba alikuwa anapaa. 9 onekana, onekana kama it ~s like wood inaonekana kama ubao it ~s soft inaonekana ororo. 10 ~ like (of persons) jisikia, taka, penda, pendelea we shall go together if you ~ like it tutakwenda wote ukipenda. ~ equal to jihisi sawa na; (colloq) ~ up to -wa na nguvu/uwezo wa. 11 patwa na, sumbuliwa na she ~s the loss of her father msiba wa baba yake unamhuzunisha he does not ~ the cold at all baridi haimsumbui. 12 fikiria kwamba, waza kuwa, onelea the committee felt the project to be feasible kamati imefikiria kwamba mradi unawezekana kutekelezwa. 13 furahia, changamkia, elewa vizuri. ~ er n (of insects, animals) 1 papasi. 2

fell

(test) hoja itolewayo ili kupima mawazo ya watu wengine. put out ~s/a ~ pima mawazo ya wengine kwa kuwapa maswali maalum. ~ing n 1 uwezo wa kuhisi the ~ing in his legs is weak uwezo wa kuhisi katika miguu yake ni dhaifu.2 hisia a ~ing of hunger hisia ya njaa. a ~ing of joy hisia ya furaha; (of an opinion) (usu sing) wazo la wote. 3 (pl) hisia za mtu hurt a man's ~ings udhi mtu, tia uchungu wa moyo. 4 huruma; uelewano he does not show much ~ ing for the sufferings of others hana huruma na wenziwe, haonei huruma wenzake. good ~ing n urafiki, uelewano. ill/bad ~ing n chuki, uhasama. 5 chuki; hasira his failure aroused strong ~ings in teachers kufeli kwake kumeibua chuki kubwa miongoni mwa walimu wake. 6 mapenzi he has much ~ing for (art, beauty etc.) ana mapenzi makubwa ya (sanaa, uzuri n.k.) adj -enye huruma; -ema; -enye kuonyesha hisia zake. ~ingly adv.

feet n, pl of foot.

feign vt (arch) 1 tunga, buni; zua ~ a story tunga hadithi. 2 jifanya, jisingizia. ~ madness jifanya kichaa.

feint n kisingizio, mwigo, hila, uwongo (to) make a ~ of doing something singizia kufanya jambo fulani. vi fanya shambulio la uongo (katika vita, ngumi ili kupoteza lengo/ kudanganya adui).

felicitate vt ~ somebody (on/upon something)(formal) pongeza, -pa hongera. felicitation n. felicitous adj (formal) (of words/remarks) fasaha,teule; -a kufurahisha, -a heri, zuri. felicity n 1 (formal) furaha kuu, nyemi. 2 sudi, baraka. 3 ufasaha, maneno fasaha.

feline adj -a (kama) paka, -a jamii ya paka. ~. felinity n.

fell1 pt of fall

fell2 n ngozi ya mnyama yenye manyoya.

fell

fell3 n mbuga yenye majabali na vilima. fell4 adj -kali, -katili; jeuri with one

~ swoop kwa pigo moja kali.

fell5 vt angusha; kata (mti) ~ a seam (in sewing) shona jongo mlazo n. flat ~ seam n jongo mlazo. ~er n mkata miti; (of machine) kata miti.

fellah n mkulima (katika nchi za Kiarabu).

fellow n 1 (colloq) mtu, jamaa

(mwanaume au mvulana) a good ~ mtu mzuri lucky ~ mtu mwenye bahati my good ~ rafiki yangu! old ~! rafiki! poor ~! masikini! what do you ~s think? vipi jamani? mwambaje? 2 mwenzi, mshiriki. be hail ~ well met with somebody -wa na urafiki wa juu juu/wa unafiki. 3 (attrib) wa aina moja. ~ country man mwananchi mwenzio; mpenzi wa chama/ushirika (lakini si mwanachama). 4 mwanazuoni, msomi. Research ~ n Mchunguzi. 5 (sehemu) moja ya jozi. ~ feeling n huruma. ~ship n 1 urafiki. 2 uanachama, ushirika. 3 uanazuoni.

felony n jinai (kuua, kuunguza nyumba ya mtu n.k.). felonious adj. felon n mkosaji.

felt1 n kitambaa gandamizo; (tarred) -a kuezekea. vt tengeneza kitambaa gandamizo.

felt2 pp of feel

female adj -a mwanamke, -a kike. n 1

mwanamke, jike. 2 (tech) parafujo pokeaji.

feminine adj 1 -a kike, -a wanawake. 2 (gram) -a (jinsi ya) kike. femininity n ujike: hali ya kuwa mwanamke. feminism n tapo la kupigania ukombozi, haki, na usawa wa wanawake; nadharia ya usawa wa wanawake. feminist n mtetezi wa nadharia ya haki na usawa wa wanawake. feminize vt,vi 1 fanya/kuwa -a kike. 2 pa/pata/chukua tabia ya kike.

femur n fupa la paja.

fen n mbuga yenye kinamasi.

fence n 1 ua. come down on one side

ferry

or the other of the ~ unga mkono upande mmoja au mwingine. come down on the right/wrong side of the ~ kuwa upande wa mshindi/ mshinde. mend one's ~s patana na, leta suluhu. sit on the ~ (usu derog) kaa chonjo/kando, jivuta; -tojitia upande huu wala ule. ~-sitter n asiyejiingiza kokote. 2 ukingo. 3 upokeaji/mpokeaji wa mali iliyoibwa. vt,vi 1 tenga na zungushia ua. 2 zuia kwa ukingo. 3 pokea mali iliyoibwa. 4 shindana kwa kitara; (fig) epuka kujibu swali. fencing n vifaa vilivyotumiwa kujenga kitalu; mchezo/ufundi wa kushindana kwa vitara. ~r n mtumiaji kitara/upanga/sime. ~less adj bila kitalu.

fend vt,vi ~(off) jikinga/linda/jilinda

dhidi ya. ~ for oneself jitegemea, jikimu. ~er n 1 kinga. 2 bamba.

fennel n shamari ( kiungo jamii ya karoti)

fenugreek n uwatu.

feral adj 1 (of an animal) -kali,

-siofugwa, -a mwituni.

ferment n 1 uchachu chachu, hamira. 2 msisimko. be in a ~ sisimkwa; umuka. vt,vi 1 vundika; chachusha; chachuka; umua. 2 (stir up) chochea, leta mkoroganyo. ~ation n.

fern n kangaga, dege la watoto, madole matano. ~y adj. ~ery n.

ferocious adj -kali; -katili. ferocity n ukali, ukatili.

ferret n 1 aina ya nguchiro. 2 chunguzi. ~y adj. vt 1 winda na cheche/nguchiro; tafutatafuta, peleleza, chunguza. 2 ~ something out/ ~ about (for something) gundua kwa kuchunguza, chunguza.

ferro (pref) -enye chuma.

ferro-concrete n zege madhubuti/kali. ~ous adj -enye (kuhusu) chuma.

ferrule n 1 (ring) pete. 2 kifuniko nchani mwa bakora/ mwavuli n.k.

ferry n kivuko. vt,vi 1 vusha. 2 safirisha; vuka. ~ boat n mashua ya kuvushia. ~ man n mvushaji. ~

fertile

pontoon n pantoni.

fertile adj 1 -enye kuzaa sana; -enye rutuba. 2 -enye uwezo wa kuzaa. 3 -enye mawazo, mipango mingi. fertility n. fertilize vt 1 rutubisha. 2 tungisha mimba. fertilizer n mbolea (k.m. ya chumvichumvi, samadi, mboji n.k.). fertilization n 1 rutubisho. 2 utungisho.

ferule n rula bapa ya kuwachapia watoto shuleni.

fervent adj 1 (-enye) moto, -enye

kuwaka. 2 -enye ari, -enye hamasa; (of feeling) kali. fervency n. fervid adj -enye ari, hamasa; -enye bidii. fervour n ari, hamasa; bidii.

fester vi 1 tunga usaha. 2 (fig) kereketa/choma (moyo).

festival n 1 sikukuu; sherehe. 2 tamasha (la muziki, filamu n.k.). festal adj -a sikukuu; -a sherehe; -enye kuchangamka. festive adj 1 -a sikukuu; -a sherehe. 2 -enye kuchangamka. festivity n 1 furaha/ shangwe ya sikukuu. 2 (pl) sherehe; sikukuu.

festoon n ushanga/utungo wa maua,

karatasi za rangirangi, vitambaa vya rangirangi n.k. (kwa ajili ya mapambo). vt pamba kwa ushanga, utungo wa maua n.k.

fetch vt,vi 1 leta go and ~ nenda kalete. ~ and carry (for) fanyia mtu kazi ndogondogo; tumikia. 2 (be sold for) uzwa kwa; pata the car will ~ a good price gari litauzwa kwa bei nzuri. 3 (colloq) piga. 4 toa, toza (machozi, kite n.k.). ~ up 1 toa; leta. 2 komesha. 3 tapika. 4 fik(i)a (kiwango). n 1 tendo la kwenda kuchukua kitu. 2 hila. ~ing adj (colloq) -enye kuvutia, -a kupendeza.

fete n (usu outdoor) fete: sherehe za kuchangisha fedha kwa shughuli maalum. vt sherehekea; laki kwa shangwe.

fetid adj -a kunuka, -enye uvundo,

-enye harufu mbaya.

fetish n 1 miungu ya masanamu. 2 kitu kinachopendwa na kuabudiwa mno.

fib

~ism n.

fetter n pingu za miguu, mnyororo; (fig. usu pl) kizuizi, kipingamizi. vt 1 tia pingu; (fig) zuia. 2 make a ~ of penda mno, husudu.

fettle n. in fine/good ~ katika hali nzuri ya uchangamfu/uzima.

fetus n see foetus.

feud n ugomvi mkubwa; uhasama wa muda mrefu baina ya watu wawili, familia, kikundi cha watu n.k.

feudal adj -a kikabaila ~ society jamii ya kikabaila. ~ stage n hatua ya ukabaila. ~ system n mfumo wa kikabaila, nyarubanja. ~ism n ukabaila. ~ist n kabaila. feudatory adj -enye kumtumikia kabaila n mtwana wa kabaila.

fever n 1 homa. ~ heat n joto la homa. yellow ~ n homa ya manjano. typhoid ~n homa ya matumbo. 2 (excitement) msisimko. at/to ~ pitch kusisimka sana. ~ed adj -enye msisimko mkubwa. ~ ish adj -enye dalili ya homa. ~ishly adv.

few adj 1 chache a man of ~ words mkimya every ~ days kila baada ya siku chache not a ~ si haba. 2 no ~er than -sio pungufu ya. 3 (positively) a ~ kiasi kidogo. some~; a good ~; quite a ~; not a ~ kiasi cha kuridhisha, maridhawa, tosha. 4 the ~ wachache. a ~ of (positive) baadhi, chache I know a few of them nawafahamu baadhi yao have a ~ (colloq) -nywa pombe kiasi cha kutosha. ~ness n.

fey adj 1 (Scot) -enye hisia ya kukaribia kufa. 2 -enye uwezo wa kutabiri. 3 -a kuzimu.

fez n tarbushi; kitunga.

fiancé (feminine fiancée) n mchumba.

fiasco n kushindwa kabisa (kwa jambo); kazi bure, hasara (tupu).

fiat n 1 amri, agizo (litolewalo na mtawala).

fib n (colloq) uwongo (hasa wa jambo

lisilokuwa muhimu). vi ongopa.

fibre

~ber n mwongo. ~bing n kusema uwongo.

fibre (US fiber) n 1 ufumwele, utembo, ung'ong'o, unyuzi. 2 bonge/ donge/bao/bamba la nyuzinyuzi. ~ board n bamba (la) nyuzi; hadibodi. ~ glass n kioo nyuzi: bamba/bati/ bodi la mseto wa glasi na nyuzi. 3 umbile, msuko; (fig) (of person) tabia. of strong moral ~ adilifu. fibrous adj.

fibula n (anat) fibula, goko, muundi.

fickle adj (of moods, the weather etc) -a kubadilika badilika, -geugeu a ~ lover mpenzi (aliye na) kigeugeu. ~ness n.

fiction n 1 (untruth) habari za kubuniwa. a polite/legal ~ n jambo linalofikiriwa kuwa kweli japokuwa laweza kuwa uwongo kisheria au kijamii. 2 tanzu ya fasihi inayojumuisha masimulizi ya kubuni. fictitious adj -a uwongo; -a kubuni.

fiddle n 1 (colloq) fidla. fit as a ~

mzima sana. have a face as long as a ~ -wa na sura ya masikitiko. play second ~ (to) chukua nafasi ya usaidizi. ~-faddle n upuuzi; mambo madogomadogo. ~ stick n upinde. ~sticks int upuuzi. 2 (colloq) utapeli, ughushi, ubabaishaji. vt 1 (colloq) piga udi/fidla. 2 ~ (about) (with) chezacheza na, chezeachezea. 3 (sl) badilisha ili kuvuruga. ~ r n mpiga fidla; mghushi. fiddling adj (colloq) -siokuwa -a maana.

fidelity n ~ (to somebody, something) 1 uaminifu. 2 usahihi.

fidget vt,vi ~ (about) (with) fazaisha; riaria, hangaika, tukuta; hangaisha stop ~ing acha kuriaria/kutukuta. n 1 (usu the ~s) hali ya kutukuta/ kuriaria. 2 mtukutu. ~y adj -siotulia; tukutu.

fie interj aibu ~ on you huoni aibu.

field n 1 mbuga ya malisho, shamba a ~ of wheat shamba la ngano. 2 (usu in compounds) uwanja a landing ~ (for aircraft) uwanja wa ndege. ~ events n pl mashindano ya kuruka/

fifty

kutupa (si ya kukimbia). ~ glasses n bainokula/darubini. ~sports n michezo ya nje, kuwinda, n.k. 3 (usu in compounds) eneo la machimbo, mgodi gold ~ mgodi wa dhahabu. 4 uwanja wa kitaaluma this is in my ~ hili lipo katika uwanja wangu (wa kitaaluma). ~ work n utafiti ufanywao nje ya maabara/maktaba, utafiti/kazi ya uwandani. 5 eneo (la matumizi n.k.) magnetic ~ eneo la sumaku. 6 (mil) uwanja wa mapambano battle ~ uwanja wa vita. ~ day n siku ya mazoezi ya kijeshi; (fig) siku maalum. have a ~ day (fig) fanya sherehe, -wa na ushindi. ~ hospital n hospitali ya muda vitani. F~ Marshal n Jemadari Mkuu. ~ gun n mzinga. 7 (sports and athletics) washindani/washiriki wote; wasasi wote. vt,vi 1 (cricket and baseball) -wa tayari kudaka au kuzuia (mpira) she ~ed the ball well aliudaka mpira vema. 2 (of football teams) ingiza; panga, chezesha timu uwanjani. ~er n ; ~ sman n (cricket etc) mdaka/ mzuia mpira. 3 (colloq) jibu he ~ed that question well alijibu vizuri swali hilo.

fiend n 1 shetani, ibilisi. 2 katili, dhalimu; jeuri. 3 (colloq) mtu aliye-athiriwa sana na jambo/kitu fulani. drug-~ n mlevi wa madawa. ~ish adj. ~ishly adv.

fierce adj kali, katili; -a nguvu. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

fiery adj 1 -a moto; -a joto, -enye kuwaka. 2 (fierce) kali; -a harara. fierily adv. fieriness n.

fiesta n (Sp) sikukuu/tamasha la kidini. fife n filimbi. vi,vt piga filimbi. ~r n mpiga filimbi.

fifteen n, adj kumi na tano. ~th adj -a kumi na tano.

fifth n, adj (-a) tano. ~ column n vibaraka wasaliti. ~ly adv.

fifty n hamsini. the fifties n miaka ya 50. go ~-~ (with); be on a ~-~ basis (with) pata/-wa nusu kwa

fig

nusu. a ~-~ chance n tumaini la sawa kwa sawa/nusu kwa nusu. fiftieth n, adj.

fig n mtini; (fruit) tini. not care/give a ~ (for) kutojali hata kidogo, kuona upuuzi mtupu!

fight n 1 pambano, mapigano. put up

a good/poor ~ pigana kishujaa/ ovyoovyo; (brawl) (fig) ugomvi. 2 ari na uwezo wa kupigana they still had ~ left in them bado walikuwa na ari na uwezo wa kupigana. show ~ onyesha/wa na moyo wa kupigana. vi,vt 1 pigana; fanya vita; shindana. ~ with (against) somebody, something pigana na. ~ for something pigania, shindania. ~ to a finish pigana mpaka kufikia uamuzi.~ shy of epukana na. 2 (of battle) pambana; (of election) gombea. 3 ~ something down shinda; kandamiza, zima. to ~ one's way sukuma/pita kwa nguvu, pigania. ~ off rudisha nyuma; zuia kwa nguvu. ~ it out pambana hadi suluhu ipatikane. ~ing chance n uwezekano wa kufanikiwa ikiwa unajitahidi sana. ~er n 1 mpiganaji. 2 ndege ya kivita.

figment n kitu kilichobuniwa au kutungwa ~ of one's imagination kitu kilichobuniwa; ndoto.

figure n 1 (number) tarakimu (hasa kutoka 0 mpaka 9). double ~s n makumi: tarakimu kuanzia 10 hadi 99. single ~s n mamoja/epesi. 2 (pl) hesabu quick at ~s -elekevu wa kuhesabu. 3 (appearance) umbo. have a fine ~ -wa na umbo zuri. cut a fine/poor/sorry ~ onyesha sura nzuri/mbaya/ya masikitiko. 4 mchoro (k.m. wa mtu, mnyama, ndege n.k.), sanamu. ~ head n sanamu ya kuchonga (ya kichwa na kifua tu au umbo zima) inayotumiwa kama pambo juu ya gubeti; (fig) mkubwa wa jina tu, mtu mwenye cheo kikubwa lakini kisicho na madaraka hasa/ya haja. 5 bei buy something at a low ~ nunua kitu kwa bei ndogo

fill

what is your ~? kiasi gani? wauzaje? 6 mtu, hasa tabia yake dominating ~ mtu mashuhuri sana. 7 ~ of speech n tamathali ya usemi. 8 mchoro, kielelezo, chati n.k.. vt,vi 1 fikiria/waza moyoni; onyesha. 2 ~ (in) onekana; jitokeza, wa mashuhuri he ~s in Kiswahili yu mashuhuri katika Kiswahili. 3 ~ something out elewa, piga hesabu. ~ somebody out elewa mtu I can't ~ that man out simwelewi mtu huyu. 4 ~ (on) (US) kisia, kadiria, dhani, tegemea I ~ him (to be) honest nadhani yu mwaminifu. 5 (represent) -wa mfano wa. ~d adj -liotiwa nakshi. figuration n ufanyizaji wa umbo; umbo; uumbaji wa taswira. figurative adj -a kitamathali, kistiari, -a methali. figuratively adv. figurine n sanamu ndogo.

filament n uzi, waya (ndani ya balbu). filature n kiwanda cha kusokota nyuzi za hariri.

filch vt dokoa; sogeza.

file1 n tupa. vt piga tupa, kata kwa tupa; chonga. filings n cheche/punje za tupa.

file2 n faili, jalada. vt 1 faili, hifadhi

jaladani. 2 andikisha jambo mahakamani, sajili.

file3 n safu. (in) single ~; (in) Indian ~ sanjari. the rank and ~ n askari (wasio maofisa); (fig) watu wa kawaida; akina kabwela/yahe. vi fuatana, andamana katika safu. ~ in/out ingia/toka kwa safu.

filial adj -a mtoto ~ love mapenzi ya mtoto kwa wazazi.

filibuster n 1 mberegezaji, mtu anayezuia upitishaji wa maamuzi katika mikutano, hasa bunge kwa hotuba ndefu. 2 hotuba ya namna hiyo. vi beregeza.

filigree n temsi.

filings n pl see file1

fill vt,vi 1 ~ (with) jaa; jaza ~ a tank with petrol jaza tangi petroli. ~ in jaza (ili kukamilisha). ~ in an

fillet

application form jaza fomu ya maombi. ~ in for (colloq) chukua nafasi ya (kwa muda). ~ out tanuka, vimba, nenepa; (esp US) ~ in, ~ up jaza au jaa kabisa ~ up a tank jaza kabisa tangi. ~ing station n kituo cha petroli. 2 jaza nafasi ya kazi (na tekeleza kazi hiyo); weka mtu katika nafasi ya kazi. ~ the bill kidhi haja; faa sana. n 1 shehena kamili. have one's ~ (of something) (colloq) choshwa na. 2 tosha kujaza, maridhawa. ~ing n kijazi, kijazo (k.m. risasi ya meno)).

fillet n 1 utepe (wa nywele). 2 sarara; mnofu wa samaki. vt 1 kata mnofu. 2 toa miiba ya samaki.

fillip vt,vi 1 piga kwa kidole. 2 amsha, shtua. n 1 kipigo cha kidole. 2 (fig) motisha, kichocheo.

filly n 1 mwana farasi jike. 2 (sl outdated) msichana mchangamfu.

film n 1 utando; utando wa macho. 2 filamu, sinema. the ~s n sinema. ~ star n mchezaji sinema mashuhuri. ~y adj -a utando, -a utusitusi. vt,vi 1 piga picha za sinema. 2 ~ (over) tanda; tandaza. 3 tokea vizuri/vibaya katika picha. ~able adj -enye kufaa kutolewa picha ya sinema.

filter n 1 chujio. 2 (of camera) kichujio. ~ tip n kichungi. vt,vi 1 safisha kwa chujio, chuja. 2 (fig of a crowd, traffic, news, ideas etc.) penya, sambaa, ingia. filtrate vt,vi see filter v. filtration n tendo la kupenya/kupita/kuchuja.

filth n uchafu, taka; kinyaa, najisi adj -enye kutia kinyaa; (colloq) -chafu sana. ~y rich adj (colloq) tajiri sana. ~ily adv. ~iness n.

fin n pezi, chombo kilicho/kitumiwacho kama pezi. tail-~ (of an aircraft) mkia wa ndege.

final adj 1 -a mwisho. 2 -a kukata maneno; makataa. n (often pl) 1 fainali. 2 mtihani wa mwisho. 3 (colloq) toleo la gazeti litolewalo mwisho wa siku. ~ist n 1 mshindani wa fainali. 2 mwanachuo wa mwaka

find

wa mwisho. ~ly adv 1 hatimaye, mwishowe. 2 kabisa he was finally cured alipona kabisa. ~e n (mus) sehemu ya mwisho ya utungo; mwisho. ~ity n makataa, mwisho. ~ize vt hitimisha, kamilisha, maliza.

finance n 1 (sayansi ya) usimamizi wa fedha (hasa za umma) expert in ~mtaalamu wa wa fedha the Minister of ~ (G.B. Chancellor of the Exchequer) Waziri wa Fedha. ~ house/company n kampuni ya fedha/karadha/mikopo. 2 (pl) fedha (hasa za serikali na kampuni). vt gharamia. financial adj -a fedha. financial year n mwaka wa fedha. ~financially adv. financier n bepari; stadi katika mambo ya fedha.

finch n aina ya shorewanda wadogo.

find1 n ugunduzi; kitu cha thamani kilichopatikana agh. kwa bahati.

find2 vt 1 ona, pata (baada ya kutafuta

kitu kilichopotea). ~ one's voice/ tongue weza kuzungumza (baada ya kuwa kimya). 2 tambua, ng'amua ~ a solution to the problem ng'amua utatuzi wa tatizo. ~ one's feet anza kusimama na kutembea (k.m. mtoto); weza kufanya mambo bila kutegemea wengine. ~ oneself jitambua, jijua. 3 fika, fikia water always ~s its own level maji hufikia usawa wake. 4 gundua, kuta (kwa bahati); tambua. ~ somebody (out) gundua. ~ somebody out gundua mtu akifanya kosa. 5 ona, kuta, ng'amua do you ~ that hard work brings rewards? unaona kuwa bidii inalipa? take us as you ~ us tuchukulie kama tulivyo. 6 tafutia, toa; patia. ~ somebody oneself in patia/jipatia (kitu). all found patiwa kila kitu wanted a good cook, 6000 shillings a month and all found anatafutwa mpishi mzuri, mshahara shilingi 6000 na atapatiwa chakula na malazi bure. 7 (leg) hukumu, amua. ~ for amua kutoa ushindi kwa ~ for the defendant upande wa

fine

utetezi umeshinda. 8 ona how did you ~ the play? uliuonaje mchezo? 9 ~ out chunguza, tafiti, tafuta ~ out the price of coffee tafuta bei ya kahawa. ~er n 1 mtu apataye/aonaye kitu kilichopotea. 2 (of camera) kitafuta kilengeo. ~ing n (usu pl) 1 matokeo. 2 uamuzi wa mahakama.

fine1 n faini. vt toza faini. ~able (also

finable) adj inayotozeka faini.

fine2 n (only in) in ~ (old use) kwa

kifupi; mwishowe.

fine3 adj 1 -angavu, -zuri it is a ~ day ni siku angavu. one ~ day (in story telling) siku moja one of these ~ days iko siku hapo baadaye. 2 -a kupendeza a ~ view mandhari ya kupendeza. ~ art n sanaa za uchoraji, uchongaji, ufinyazi n.k. ~-spun adj -liosokotwa vyema. 3 ororo, laini; -liyofanywa kwa ustadi na epesi kuharibika. 4 (slender) -embamba sana, -dogo sana ~ distinction ubainisho mdogo, mkali. not to put too ~ a point on it eleza waziwazi/bayana. 5 (of metal) safi ~ gold dhahabu safi. 6 (healthy) -a afya. 7 (of speech or writing) -liotiwa chumvi, -sio kweli. call somebody/something by ~ names taja kitu kwa kutumia tasifida; (of somebody) vika kilemba cha ukoka. ~ly adv 1 kwa kupendeza, kwa uzuri. 2 katika vipande vidogo sana. ~ness. ~n, adv (colloq) zuri that suits me ~ inanifaa sana. ~ry n umalidadi; mavazi mazuri in all her ~ kwa umalidadi wake wote.

finesse n werevu, uwezo wa kufanya

jambo kwa maarifa na upole; (cards) jitihada za kushinda kwa kutumia mbinu. vt ~ somebody into doing something shawishi mtu kwa ujanja na upole kufanya kitu fulani.

finger n kidole, chanda. little-~ n kidole cha mwisho. ring-~ n kidole cha pete. middle ~ n kidole cha kati. index/fore ~ n kidole cha shahada. somebody's ~s are all thumbs mtu mzito katika kutenda

finish

jambo, goigoi. burn one's ~s pata matatizo, ingia matatani kutokana na uzembe. lay a ~ on gusa don't lay a finger on this book usiguse kitabu hiki. lay/put one's ~ on tambua kiini cha kosa, tatizo n.k. not lift/raise/stir a ~ (to help somebody) -tosaidia mtu. put the ~ on somebody (sl) fichua (mhalifu). twist somebody around one's litle ~ tawala mtu kabisa. work one's ~s to the bone chapa kazi sana. ~-alphabet n mfumo wa kutumia vidole kuzungumza na kiziwi, lugha ya viziwi wasiosikia. ~-board n daraja la fidla. ~-bowl n tasa (la kunawia mikono). ~-mark n alama za vidole (vichafu). ~-nail n ukucha. ~-plate n kizuizi cha uchafu katika kitasa cha mlango. ~ -post n ubao unaoelekeza njia kwa picha ya kidole. ~-point n alama ya kidole. ~-tip n ncha ya kidole. have something at one's ~ tips jua sana, -wa na uzoefu mkubwa wa jambo fulani pull your ~ out (sl) fanya/chapa kazi. ~stall n kifuniko/ kinga ya kidole (kilichojeruhiwa). vt 1 gusa, papasa, tomasa, shikashika, tia vidole ~ a piece of cloth gusa kitambaa. 2 (US sl) taja (agh. mhalifu).

finial n umbo la nakshi juu ya jengo maalum k.m. mnara.

finical adj. finicking; finicky adj -enye machagu.

finis n (sing only) (Lat) mwisho, tamati.

finish vt,vi 1 maliza, timiza, hitimisha; akidi that long walk ~ed me ile safari ndefu nusura inimalize. ~ somebody off (sl) ua, teketeza. ~ something off/up; ~ up maliza -ote. ~ up with maliza -ote, malizia na. ~ with maliza na; fikia mwisho wa; vunja urafiki. 2 ishiliza, kamilisha the table is beautifully ~ed meza ilikamilishwa kwa ustadi. ~ing school n shule binafsi ya kuwatayarisha wasichana kwa

finite

maisha ya utu uzima. n (sing only) 1 mwisho. be in at the ~ kuwepo wakati wa mwisho a fight to the ~ pigano hadi mwisho. 2 ukamilifu. ~ed adj. ~ing adj.

finite adj 1 -enye kikomo/-enye kwisha/mpaka. 2 (gram) -enye kukubaliana na kiima katika idadi na nafsi.

fiord; fjord n fiodi: mkono wa baharikati ya magenge, milima n.k.

fir n msonobari; mbao za msonobari. ~-cone n tunda la msonobari.

fire n 1 moto. lay a ~ koka moto. light/make a ~ washa moto. set on ~ choma moto, tia moto, unguza. make up a ~ chochea. catch ~ shika moto. between two ~s katikati ya hatari mbili. set on ~ choma moto. strike ~ from pekecha moto. he never set the Thames on ~ hatatia fora; hatafanya la ajabu. there is no smoke without ~ (prov) pafukapo moshi pana moto. play with ~ chezea moto/hatari. 2 (blaze) mwako; uteketezaji. ~ and sword mauaji na uteketezaji (vitani). ~ risks(s) visababisha moto. 3 (brightness) wangavu. 4 (excitement) juhudi, harara. 5 (energy) nguvu. 6 mshindo wa bunduki; kupiga bunduki. open/cease ~ anza/ simamisha mashambulio. under ~ shambuliwa. running ~ n mfululizo wa mashambulio; (fig) mfululizo wa maswali, shutuma n.k. 7 (comp. words). ~-alarm n king'ora (cha moto). ~ arm n silaha ya moto, bunduki, bastola, n.k. ~-ball n kimondo; (mil.) sehemu ya katikati ya bomu la atomi. ~bird n ndege wa kimarekani mwenye rangi ya manjano na nyeusi. ~bomb n bomu la moto. ~box n chumba cha fueli. ~brand n kijinga cha moto; (fig.) mchochezi wa mambo (katika jamii au kisiasa). ~break n kinga ya moto sehemu iliyolimwa na kukatwa miti kusudi kuzuia moto usiingie katika msitu. ~brick n tofali lisiloathiriwa na

fire

moto. ~ brigade n zimamoto: kikosi maalum cha kuzima moto. ~bug n (sl) mtu mwenye kuchoma nyumba kusudi. ~ clay n udongo usioshika moto, agh. hutumiwa kwa kutengenezea matofali ya kukinga moto. ~ control n udhibiti (wa) mapigo ya bunduki. ~ cracker n fataki. ~ damp n mitheni. ~ dog n see andiron. ~ drill n mazoezi ya utaratibu unaotakikana kufuatwa kama kumetokea moto. ~eater n mshari. ~ engine n gari la zima -moto. ~escape n ngazi/njia ya kinga (ya) moto, ngazi za wazimamoto za kuokolea watu (wakati wa hatari ya moto). ~extinguisher n kizima moto: kifaa cha kuzimia moto. ~fighter n mzimamoto (hasa moto wa misitu). ~fly n kimemeta, kimulimuli. ~guard n kiunzi cha waya wa metali cha kuzuilia moto. ~hose n bomba la mpira la kuzimia moto. ~irons n vichocheo, koleo ya moto. ~light n mwangaza wa moto; kijinga; tita la kuni la kuwashia moto. ~man n mwangalizi wa moto katika tanuu au injini ya moto; mzimamoto. ~place n mekoni; ukingo wa fito wa kuzuilia moto nyumbani; jiko. ~ plug n plagi, kiunganishio cha mpira wa zimamoto. ~power n uwezo wa kupiga silaha (unaopimwa kwa idadi na uzito wa milipuko kwa kila dakika). ~proof adj -sioungua, -sioshika moto. ~raising n uchomaji nyumba kwa makusudi. ~side n sebule ya kuotea moto sit at the ~ side (fig) tulia nyumbani; ishi maisha ya nyumbani. ~station n makazi ya zima moto na vifaa. ~stone n jiwe lisoshika moto. ~walking n tambiko au sherehe ya kukanyaga mawe ya moto kwa miguu mitupu. ~ water n (colloq) pombe kali hasa kama vile wiski, jini n.k.. ~wood n kuni. ~-work n fataki: chombo chenye baruti na

firkin

kemikali kitumiwacho kwa kufanyia michezo. vt,vi 1 tia moto, choma moto, unguza, teketeza. 2 kaanga, choma, oka katika tanuu. ~ bricks choma matofali. 3 chochea kuni. 4 piga bunduki ~ a salute toa salamu ya heshima (kwa kupiga mzinga). ~ a shot piga bunduki. ~ at/into/on/ upon something/somebody piga risasi, fyatulia risasi. ~ away endelea kupiga risasi. firing line n mstari wa mbele wa mashambilizi. firing squad/party n kikosi cha wauaji/watoa salamu za rambirambi (jeshini) (colloq) anza mara moja. 5 fukuza kazini. 6 (kwa bunduki) lia. 7 lipuka; waka. ~ up (usu flare up) kasirika, hamaki, sisimua. ~ somebody with something sisimua, tia hamu, hamasisha.

firkin n kasiki dogo.

firm1 adj 1 imara, thabiti, -gumu.

be on ~ ground -wa na uhakika; -wa thabiti katika maoni be ~ on one's legs simama tisti. 2 (resolute) shupavu be ~ in one's beliefs shikilia. 3 (of a person, his body, its movements, characteristics etc) -siotetereka, madhubuti, -liotengamaa. vt,vi (make/become) -wa imara, jikita; imarisha, kita, shupaza adv kwa imara stand ~ (lit or fig) shupalia jambo. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

firm2 n washirika, wabia (katika biashara, kampuni).

firmament n the ~ n anga, mbingu.

first1 adj 1 (abbr 1st) kwanza; -a awali; -a mwanzo. at ~ sight ilivyoonekana kwa mara ya kwanza. in the ~ place kwanza kabisa. ~ thing n jambo la kwanza. ~ things ~ -a muhimu kwanza, panga kufuatana na umuhimu wa jambo. not to know the ~ thing about something kutofahamu chochote kuhusu jambo fulani. 2 (special uses, compounds) ~aid n huduma ya kwanza. ~ base n (base ball) kituo cha kwanza. get to ~ base (fig) anza vizuri. ~ class

fish

n daraja la kwanza adj safi sana; -a daraja la juu ~ class entertainment burudani safi kabisa travel ~ class safiri kwa daraja la kwanza. ~ cost n (comm) gharama bila faida. ~ fruits n mlimbuko, mavuno ya kwanza ya msimu; (fig) matunda ya mwanzo ya kazi za mtu. ~ hand adj,adv -a asili, -a moja kwa moja, -liopatikana kutokana na chimbuko ~ hand information habari/ushahidi kutoka kwa mtu aliyekuwapo wakati jambo linatokea at ~ hand moja kwa moja. ~ name n jina la kwanza (sio la ukoo). ~ night n usiku wa kwanza (wa mchezo). ~ nighter n mtazamaji wa mara kwa mara wa maonyesho hayo. ~ offender n mhalifu wa mara ya kwanza. ~ person n (gram) nafsi ya kwanza. ~ rate adj -a hali ya juu, bora, aali; (colloq) vizuri sana she is getting on ~-rate anaendelea vizuri sana. ~ly adv.

first2 adv 1 kwanza. ~ of all kwanza. ~ and foremost awali ya yote. ~ come ~ served wa kwanza kwanza. ~ and last kwa jumla; zaidi ya yote; mwanzo na mwisho. ~ born n kifungua mimba. 2 kwa mara ya kwanza when did you ~ see this? ulikiona lini kwa mara ya kwanza? 3 kuliko he will resign ~ atajiuzulu kuliko. n 1 at ~ mwanzoni. from the ~ tokea mwanzo. from ~ to last toka mwanzo hadi mwisho. 2 (in examination, competitions) nafasi ya kwanza; mwenye kushika nafasi ya kwanza. 3 (at University) digrii ya daraja la kwanza.

firth n hori nyembamba; (esp in Scotland) mlango wa mto.

fiscal adj -a hazina ya serikali. ~ year n mwaka wa fedha.

fish n 1 samaki, nswi. a pretty kettle of ~ hali ya matata/vurumai. have other ~ to fry -wa na shughuli nyingine muhimu zaidi. there's as good ~ in the sea as ever came out of it (prov) iko siku drink like a

fish plate

~ kunywa pombe mno. 2 mlo wa samaki. ~ and chips chipsi na samaki. 3 (compounds) ~ -ball/~ -cake n andazi la samaki na viazi vya kupondwa. ~ bone n mwiba wa samaki. ~ -hook n ndoana. ~-knife n kisu cha kulia samaki. ~-monger n mchuuzi/muuza samaki. ~-paste n lahamu ya samaki. ~-slice n kisu cha kupakulia samaki mezani. ~-wife n mwanamke muuza samaki; (colloq) mwanamke mwenye mdomo mchafu. ~y adj 1 -enye shombo. 2 (colloq) -sioaminika. vt,vi 1 vua samaki. ~ in the sea (fig) jaribu kupata kitu kwa njia za kuzunguka. ~ in troubled waters jaribu kupata faida kutokana na machafuko fulani. 2 ~ up (out of) (from) toa, chomoa ~ from one's pocket chukua sarafu kutoka mfukoni. 3 ~ for compliments (informal derog) tafuta sifa ~ for information tafuta habari kwa njia za kuzunguka. ~ing n kuvua samaki. ~ing-line n mshipi. ~ing-rod n ufito wa kuvua. ~ing-tackle n vifaa vya uvuvi. ~er n mvuvi; mtu anayeishi kwa kuvua samaki. ~erman n mtu anayeishi kwa kuvua samaki, mvuvi. ~ery n 1 sehemu ya uvuvi (baharini, mtoni, ziwani n.k.) in-shore ~eries uvuvi wa karibu na pwani.

fish plate n taruma la reli.

fission n mgawanyo/mpasuko (mfano wa chembe hai au wa nguvu za atomu). ~able adj -a kuweza kugawanyika, -a kuweza kupasuka kwa nguvu za atomu. fissile adj -a kuweza kupasuka/kuchanika. fissiparous adj (of cells) -a kuongezeka kwa njia ya mpasuko/ kugawanyika. fissure n ufa.

fist n ngumi, konde hit with a ~ piga

ngumi/konde put up your ~ jitayarishe kupigana. ~icuffs n (pl) (usu hum) kupigana ngumi.

fistula n nasuri.

fit adj 1 ~ (for) -a kufaa; laiki, -enye kustahili the meal is ~ to eat chakula kinafaa kuliwa that post does not ~

fit

you cheo/kazi ile si laiki yako the proposed time is ~ for us all muda uliopendekezwa unatufaa sote. 2 sawa, -a haki it is not ~ that you should abuse your teacher so sio haki kumtukana hivyo mwalimu wako. think/see ~ (to do something) amua kufanya kitu fulani. 3 -wa tayari feel ~ to do something -wa tayari kufanya jambo fulani; (also colloq, as an adv) we laughed ~ to burst tulivunjika mbavu kwa kucheka. 4 -enye afya nzuri feel ~ as a fiddle -wa mzima kabisa. ~ly adv. ~ness n 1 ubora wa. 2 siha, uzima. vt,vi 1 kaa, enea, faa, tosha his clothes ~ him nguo zake zimemkaa it ~s you like a glove imekukaa; kama ulizaliwa nayo it ~s me inanitosha, imenienea ~ tight saki, bana. 2 ~ (on) jaribu kuvaa (nguo, viatu ili kupima). 3 weka; kaza; pachika ~ a new door weka mlango mpya. 4 ~ (for) andaa; kuwa barabara/ laiki/imara. 5 ~ in (with) patana na my outing must ~ in with yours matembezi yangu lazima yapatane na yako. 6 ~ somebody/something out/up -pa matumizi, -pa vifaa vinavyohitajika. n jinsi mavazi yakaavyo a good/bad ~ nguo ikaayo vizuri/vibaya mwilini. ~ment n kifaa, zana. kitchen ~ment n zana za jikoni. ~ter n 1 fundi (cherehani) anayepimisha na kushonesha nguo. 2 fundi wa kuunganisha sehemu za mashine, injini, mitambo n.k. ~ting adj -a kufaa; stahiki. n 1 kujaribisha nguo kwa fundi. 2 zana, kifaa (cha kudumu). electric light ~ting n zana ya taa za umeme; (pl) samani, fanicha, vyombo.

fit2n 1 ugonjwa wa ghafla wa muda

mfupi a ~ of coughing kushikwa na kikohozi (kwa muda); kikohozi a fainting ~ kuzirai.2 kifafa epileptic ~ kifafa hysteria ~ kulialia/ chekacheka ovyo. have a ~ (colloq) shtuka mno. give somebody a ~

five

(colloq) kasirisha, shtua. 3 shambulio la ghafla la muda mfupi; mlipuko a ~ of anger hasira ya ghafla, ya muda. in by ~s and starts kwa vipindi vifupi mara moja moja. ~ful adj -enye kutokea kwa vipindi; (restless) -a kugeuka geuka. ~ fully adv. 4 kujisikia when the ~ was on him alipojisikia.

five adj,n -tano she is ~ (years old) ana umri wa miaka mitano. ~ figured adj -a tarakimu tano. ~ fold adj -a mara tano adv mara tano. ~r n (colloq) (GB) noti ya pauni tano; (US) noti ya dola tano. ~s n (GB) mchezo wa mpira uchezwao kwa mkono au kibao kwenye uwanja.

fix1 vt,vi 1 kaza, kongomea, imarisha. 2 ~ on kazia, elekeza (macho, fikra n.k.) juu ya; kodolea (macho). 3 (of objects) vuta/vutia macho, tazamisha the lady's dress ~ed his attention gauni la mwanamke lilimvutia macho. 4 amua, panga ~ a date for a journey panga siku ya safari. 5 tengeneza kwa/tia dawa (filamu, rangi) ili zisififie kwa mwanga wa jua. 6 ~ up (with something); ~ something up (with somebody), pangia; panga, tayarisha ~ up a friend for the night -pa rafiki malazi. 7 ~ on/upon chagua. 8 (sl) toa rushwa, honga It's a major offence to ~government officials ni kosa kubwa kuwahonga maafisa wa serikali. 9 lipiza kisasi; tengeneza. 10 (colloq) tengeneza ~ one's hair chana, nywele. ~ a radio tengeneza redio. ~ed adj -a kudumu; thabiti; siobadilika/geuka/sogea. ~ed assets n rasilimali za kudumu. ~ed capital n mtaji wa kudumu. ~ed point n nukta tuli. ~ed price n bei moja. ~edly adv kwa ukakamavu. ~edness n.

fix2 n 1 matatizo, matata, mkwamo. get somebody into a ~ tia mtu matatani. be in a ~ kwama. 2 kutambua mahali kwa kuangalia nyota. 3 (sl) sindano ya dawa za kulevya. ~ate vt

flag

1 kodolea/kazia macho. 2 be ~ed (on) (colloq) tawaliwa na tamaa ya. ~ation n 1 (of film etc) kutengeneza kwa dawa. ~ation (on) tamaa kuu (ya).~ative n dawa ya kutengeneza filamu n.k.; dawa ya kugandisha (meno, nywele n.k.). ~ity n (phyl) uthabiti, ugumu, uimara. ~ ture n 1 chombo/zana iliyowekwa mahali pa kudumu (agh hununuliwa pamoja na nyumba). 2 (colloq) mtu/kitu kinachoonekana sana mahali/ kinakuwepo kila wakati he is a ~ture at the bar hakosekani kwenye baa. 3 (of games) (ratiba ya) pambano.

fizz vi 1 toa povu, toa sauti kama gesi (k.m. soda/bia inapofunguliwa). 2 (colloq) shampeni. ~y adj.

fizzle vi ~ out fifia, malizia/malizika

kwa unyonge/kinyonge.

fjord n see fiord

flabbergast vt (colloq) shangaza; pumbaza, duwaza.

flabby adj 1 (of the muscles flesh) teketeke, dhaifu, tepetevu 2. (fig) nyonge, -sio imara, -sio thabiti, legelege. flabbily adv. flabbiness n.

flaccid adj -enye kutepeta, tepetevu. ~ity n.

flag1 n bendera, baramu. ~ of convenience bendera ya bandia (itumikayo kumficha mwenye meli ili aepuke kutoa ushuru). lower/ strike one's ~ teremsha bendera kama ishara ya kuonyesha kukubali ushinde. (compounds) ~-captain n kapteni wa meli ya admeri. ~-day n siku ya kutoa michango ya kusaidia wenye shida. ~-officer n admeri. ~-pole/~-staff n mlingoti (wa bendera). ~-ship n manowari yenye bendera ya admeri. vt 1 pamba kwa bendera. 2 simamisha gari, treni n.k. kwa bendera. vi legea, tepeta; (diminish) fifia, pungua; (fig) nyong'onyea, choka.

flag2 n (also ~-stone) jiwe bapa linalotumiwa kusakafia.

flag3 n (bot) kangaga.

flagellant

flagellant n mtu anayejipiga mijeledi (kama malipizo ya dini). flagellate vt piga mijeledi. flagellation n.

flageolet n filimbi, zumari, nai.

flagon n kuzi la divai.

flagrant adj -baya na wazi, dhahiri,

-sio na haya. ~ly adv. flagrancy n.

flail n ala ya kuputia. vt puta.

flair n kipaji, kipawa, wepesi, karama (to) have a ~for something -wa na kipaji cha jambo fulani.

flak n (G) mzinga wa kupigia ndege.

flake n 1 chembe, sehemu ndogo ndogo snow ~ vipande vidogo vya theluji. 2 (of metal) mavi. vt,vi banduka. (fig) ~ out zimia; anguka kwa uchovu. flaky adj flakiness n.

flambeau n mwenge.

flamboyant adj 1 -enye kumeremeta kuzidi kiasi, -a rangi inayong'ara sana. 2 (of person) mshaufu. ~ly adv. flamboyance n ushaufu.

flame n 1 mwale, mwako wa moto,

ulimi wa moto. 2 (colloq) mpenzi, mchumba. 3 mwako (wa upendo, wa hasira, wa shauku). (to) fan the ~ chochea moto ~-tree kifabakazi ~ -thrower silaha ya moto. vt 1 waka, lipuka, toa moto. 2 fanana na miale kwa rangi. 3 ~ out (up) waka kwa hasira. flaming adj -nayowaka, -a moto sana.

flamingo n flamingo, korongo.

flammable adj see inflammable.

flange n kigingi, kipande (ulimi) kinachotokeza (katika gurudumu, boriti n.k.).

flank n 1 ubavu, upande wa mtu au

nyama. 2 kando, upande (mlima, jengo, msafara). 3 sehemu ya pembeni ya jeshi a ~ movement mwendo wa kupita upande, mzunguko. vt,vi zunguka pembeni; shambulia kutoka pembeni; (pita, weka) ubavuni kwa (upande wa, kando ya). vi -wa kandoni; pakana na. ~er n mchezaji wa pembeni.

flannel n 1 fulana. 2 tambara (la kusafishia) face ~ tambara la uso. 3 (pl) suruali ya fulana (hasa ya

flat

michezo wakati wa joto); (US sl) upuuzi adj -a fulana.

flap n 1 pigo. 2 (of cloth, paper etc)

kifuniko. 3 (of aircraft wing) upindo, lisani. (fig) be/get in a ~ hangaika, tapatapa. vt,vi 1 pigapiga, piga (mabawa); punga. 2 tapatapa, papatika.

flapjack n keki (ya kukaanga katika

samli); (US) gole.

flapper n 1 chombo cha kupigia nzi n.k. 2 pezi pana. 3 (sl 1920's) mrembo.

flare vi 1 waka, toa moto. 2 tanuka. ~d adj -liyotanuka. ~d skirt n sketi pana. ~d trousers n suruali pana. ~ up lipuka (moto, hasira n.k.). n 1 mwako. 2 mwako wa kuashiria hatari. ~-up n 1 lipuko. 2 magomvi ya ghafula.

flash n 1 mwako, nuru ya (mwanga wa) kumulika ghafula. (fig) in a ~ kufumba na kufumbua. a ~ in the pan limbuko. 2 ~ light n taa; (naut) mmuliko; (US) tochi; (also ~ bulb) taa ya picha. ~ gun n tochi ya picha. ~ point n (of gas) kiwango cha kuwaka mafuta. n 1 (fig) mahali pa hatari (ambapo vita vinaweza kuzuka wakati wowote). 2 news ~n taarifa motomoto/za ghafla (zinazopokelewa ili kutangazwa na vyombo vya habari). 3 (mil) medali ya utepe kwenye sare ya jeshi. vi 1 waka, mulika ghafla na kuzimika. 2 (fig) -jia ghafla (akilini) it suddenly ~ed upon him ghafla yakamjia; pita upesi sana the train ~ed past treni ilipita haraka sana. 3 enda upesi news ~ed across the world habari zilitangaa upesi duniani pote. 4 ~ back rejea ghafula; kumbuka, kumbusha. ~ back n kumbusho (la ghafula). ~y adj -shaufu, -a maringo, -a madaha. ~ily adv.

flask n 1 chupa ndogo (ya maabara). 2 powder ~n pembe ya baruti. 3 kiriba cha mvinyo.

flat adj 1 sawasawa; bapa the floor is ~ sakafu iko sawasawa. ~ land n

flatter

ardhi tambarare. ~ bottomed adj (of boat) bapa, -enye kitako. ~ car n (US) behewa la mizigo (lisilo na bodi). ~ fish n samaki wa jamii ya wayo. ~ footed adj -enye nyayo bapa; (colloq) thabiti, imara. ~foot n polisi. ~racing/the F~ n mashindano ya farasi bila kuruka viunzi. ~ top n (colloq) see aircraft carriers. 2 (insipid) baridi, dufu; -sio tamu, chapwa the dance fell ~ ngoma haikufana his speech fell ~ hotuba yake haikukolea. 3 (of liquor) siyo na gesi. 4 -a kuteremsha sing ~ imba kwa kiteremsho. 5 (depressed) -enye moyo mzito. 6 -a wazi kabisa he gave a ~ denial alikana kabisa that's ~ basi! 7 (of a tyre/foot ball) -liokwisha pumzi. 8 (comm) ~rate n bei moja. 9 (of colours) -siyo vivuli, bapa. 10 (of battery) -liokufa, -siochaji. 11 (of characters, lit.) bapa. 12 ~ spin n (of aircraft) kushuka kwa kasi; (colloq) (of a person) kuchanganyikiwa adv 1 kwa kutandazwa/kulaza fall ~ on one's face/back anguka kifudifudi/chali the earth quake laid the city ~ tetemeko la ardhi liliteketeza mji. 2 moja kwa moja. ~ broke n kuchalala, kukaukiwa, mwambo. 3 ~ out kwa nguvu zote; hoi. n 1 mahali sawa na papana; (usu near sea) wangwa. 2 (of sword) ubapa ~ of the hand kitanga cha mkono. 3 (mus) kiteremsho. 4 (US) pancha, gurudumu lililokwisha upepo. ~tish adj. ~ly adv kabisa, waziwazi; bila furaha. n 1 (US apartment) nyumba ya ghorofa. block of ~s n maghorofa. ~ten vt,vi ~ten out sawazisha, laza, nyoosha, tandaza I ~tened myself against the wall nilijibana ukutani; (of aircraft) enda sawa baada ya kushuka; (fig) aibisha sana, maliza, dhalilisha, gonga.

flatter vt 1 sifu mno; jipendekeza; rai; bembeleza. 2 furahisha, pendeza be ~ed by an invitation pendezwa na mwaliko. 3 (of picture, image) fanya

fleet

-zuri kuliko -a kweli. 4 ~ oneself jivuna (bila haki); jifurahisha. ~er n. ~ry n ubembelezaji; sifa isiyostahilika.

flatulence n riahi, gesi tumboni. flatulent adj.

flatware n vyombo vya kulia, kupakulia chakula.

flaunt vt,vi koga, ringa. ~ oneself jishaua, tamba, punga kwa madaha.

flautist n mpiga filimbi.

flavour/flavor n ladha; (fig) namna; mtindo. vt koleza, unga; tia viungo. ~ed adj. ~ing n ladha. ~less adj -sio na ladha.

flaw n 1 (crack) ufa. 2 dosari, ila, hitilafu, upungufu. vt,vi tia dosari; pata ufa his character is ~ed tabia yake ina dosari. ~less adj -sio na dosari.

flax n kitani. ~en adj. ~en hair n nywele zenye rangi ya kitani.

flay vt chuna, sopoa; (fig) kosoa sana. flea n kiroboto. with a ~ in the ear karipio kali. ~-bite n alama ya kuumwa na kiroboto; (fig) jambo dogo sana. ~-bitten adj (fig) (of an animal's colouring) -a madoadoa. ~market n (colloq) gulio, mjajaro; soko la mitumba. ~ pit n (colloq) mahali pa starehe palipochakaa na pachafu.

fleck n 1 kipaku, kidoa. 2 chembe. vt tia vipaku.

fledged adj (of birds) -enye mabawa ya kurukia, -enye nguvu ya kurukia fully ~ (fig) -liofunzwa na -enye uzoefu wa muda mrefu. fledg(e)ling n kinda (kifaranga) la ndege; (fig) kijana asiye na uzoefu.

flee vi kimbia.

fleece n 1 manyoya ya kondoo; lundo la manyoya ya kondoo ya mkato mmoja. 2 kitu kilichofanana na manyoya ya kondoo k.m. mawingu. ~ somebody (of something) (fig) ibia mtu kwa ujanja; tapeli; (by charging high prices) gonga. fleecy adj.

fleet1 n 1 kundi la manowari chini ya

fleet

kamanda (kiongozi) mmoja; manowari zote za nchi moja. 2 kundi la meli, ndege, motokaa n.k. chini ya kiongozi mmoja au miliki moja.

fleet2 adj (poet. liter) -epesi (katika

mwendo); -enye kasi kubwa. ~ly adv. ~ness n. ~ing adj -epesi; -a muda mfupi tu, -a kupita, -a mara moja pay somebody a ~ ing visit tembelea mtu kwa muda mfupi tu.

flesh n 1 nyama lions are ~-eating animals simba ni wanyama walao nyama. ~ and blood hali ya ubinadamu, utu; udhaifu. it's more than ~ and blood can bear imepita kiwango cha kuvumilia. one's own ~ and blood ndugu wa karibu. in the ~ katika maisha, katika umbo la mwili he is nicer in the ~ ni mzuri zaidi ukimwona. go the way of all ~ kufa. have/demand one's pound of ~ dai malipo bila huruma. make a person's ~ creep tisha/ogopesha mno mtu. put on/lose ~ nenepa/ konda. ~pots n (pl) mahali pa starehe. ~ wound n kidonda kidogo, kidonda cha juu. 2 the ~ n matamanio ya kimwili. 3 mwili in the ~ mwenyewe, nafsi yake he was there in the ~ alikuwepo yeye mwenyewe. the spirit is willing but the ~ is weak nia ipo lakini nguvu hakuna. 4 nyama ya matunda/mboga. ~ly adj -a mwili; -a tamaa za mwili. ~y adj nene, nono, -a nyama. ~ings n (pl) nguo za rangi ya mwili (kama zile zinazovaliwa na wachezaji wa bale).

flew pt of fly.

flex1 n kamba ya umeme (ya taa, pasi n.k.).

flex2 vt kunja, nyumbua (mkono,

mguu). ~ one's muscles nyumbua/ chezea/nyoosha misuli. ~ible adj -a kunyumbulika, -enye kupindika; (fig) -nayoweza kubadilika kwa urahisi kupokea mazingira mapya; (of persons) -enye uwezo wa kubadilisha (mipango, malengo). ~ibility n.

flibbertigibbet n mpiga domo; mtu

fling

asiyetulia, kirukanjia.

flick n 1 papaso; pigo jepesi na la haraka. 2 mfyekuzo. ~-knife n kisu cha kukunjua kwa mshtuo. 3 (sl) filamu za sinema. the ~ n sinema. vt 1 piga kidogo (mf. kwa kiboko n.k.); papasa. 2 ~ something away/off pangusa.

flicker vi (of light; (fig) of hopes, etc) memeteka; wakawaka; tikisika, yumbayumba. n 1 (usu sing) kutikisika, kuyumbayumba. 2 mwako wa mtetemeko a ~ of the eyelid mpepeso.

flight1 n 1 kuruka the art of ~ ufundiwa kuruka. 2 safari ya angani; masafa ya mruko. ~ deck n (on an aircraft carrier) sitaha ya kupurukia na kutulia; (in an airliner) chumba cha rubani, n.k.. 3 mwendo wa hewani. 4 kundi la ndege (au vitu virukavyo pamoja) hewani. in the first ~ katika nafasi ya mbele, -enye kuongoza. 5 kupita kwa haraka. 6 (of stairs) ngazi. 7 kundi la ndege katika jeshi la anga la nchi. ~ Lieutenant n Luteni wa jeshi la anga. ~y adj -geugeu. ~iness n.

flight2 n kukimbia; ukimbizi put to ~ fukuza/kimbiza maadui. take ~; take to ~ kimbia.

flimsy adj (of material) -sio na nguvu

(kwa sababu ya kuwa -embamba, laini); -a kuharibika; -a kuvunjika kwa urahisi; (fig) a ~ excuse/ argument udhuru/hoja hafifu, isiyoridhisha. n karatasi nyepesi. flimsily adv. flimsiness n.

flinch vi ~ (from) 1 shtuka, jivuta kidogo (mwili shauri ya maumivu). 2 kwepa kidogo.

fling vt,vi 1 vurumiza, vurumisha, tupa kwa nguvu (to) ~ caution to the winds fanya mambo bila kujali matokeo be flung into prison tupwa gerezani she flung an angry look at him alimtupia jicho la hasira ~ oneself into jishughulisha kwa nguvu. 2 rusharusha ~ one's hands about rusha rusha mikono. 3 ondoka

flint

kwa hasira/nguvu he flung off without saying goodbye aliondoka kwa hasira bila kuaga. n 1 kutupa/kurusha/ kuvurumuza. have a ~ at jaribu; jaribia. 2 aina ya dansi ya (Kiskoti). have one's ~ starehe bila kifani.

flint n 1 namna ya jiwe gumu sana. 2 ~ stone jiwe la mango; (of cigarette lighter) jiwe la kiberiti. ~y adj gumu sana; katili.

flip vt,vi 1 shtua, rusha kwa kidole. 2(fig) geuza, bingirika. 3 (sl) pata wazimu. 4 (sl) jaa shauku, sisimka sana (kwa ajili ya mtu/jambo). 5 ~ through soma juujuu, somasoma. n 1 mrusho mdogo; kipigo cha haraka. 2 (colloq) mruko wa muda mfupi kwa eropleni (kwa kujifurahisha) adj -siokuwa na makini/ukweli. the ~ side (colloq) upande wa pili wa sahani ya santuri.

flip-flop (colloq) n ndara.

flippant adj -puuzi, -a purukushani; -a kejeli, -a mzaha. ~ly adv. ~flippancy n.

flipper n 1 kikono (cha nyangumi, pomboo n.k). 2 mpira ufungwao miguuni (wakati wa kuogelea) (kwa kujifurahisha tu); bemba.

flirt vi 1 ~ (with) onyesha mapenzi

(kwa kuchezea). 2 chezea, fikiria (bila makini). ~ with danger chezea hatari. n mbembe. ~ation n. ~atious adj.

flit vi 1 rukaruka, kwa wepesi na haraka ~ to and fro ruka huku na huko, pita kwa wepesi au kimya. 2 (colloq) hama/ondoka kimyakimya (kukwepa madeni n.k.). n (colloq) kuhama/kuondoka kwa siri.

float n 1 chelezo, boya. 2 jukwaa lenye magurudumu; gari lenye jukwaa vt,vi 1 elea. 2 fanya (kitu) kielee. 3 (comm) pata msaada (wa fedha)/mtaji kuanzisha jambo; anzisha shirika n.k (kwa kuuza hisa). 4 (finance) acha fedha ibadilikebadilike thamani bila kizuizi, ondoa udhibiti wa thamani ya fedha. 5 eneza ~ a rumour eneza uvumi. ~ing adj 1 inayobadilika-

floor

badilika; geuzi; geugeu. 2 ~ing debt n deni ambalo sehemu yake sharti ilipwe inapotakiwa. ~ing rib n (anat) ubavu usioungana na kidari. ~ation n (upataji mtaji wa) kuanzisha kampuni n.k.

flock1 n 1 (usu sheep, goats) kundi. ~ and herds n kondoo na ng'ombe. 2 (of people) umati; kiasi kikubwa. 3 (mkusanyiko wa) waumini (wa kikristo); watu walio chini ya mtu mmoja a priest and his ~ padre na waumini wake vi kusanyika; -ja/enda wengi pamoja the children ~ed to see the magician watoto walikusanyika kumtazama mfanya mazingaombwe. ~ out toka kwa makundi.

flock2 n kibonge cha sufu au nywele; (pl) taka za sufu au pamba zitumiwazo kujaza godoro n.k.

floe n pande kubwa la barafu linaloelea.

flog vt 1 tandika/chapa kiboko au mjeledi. ~ a dead horse poteza nguvu bure. ~ something to death rudiarudia kitu hadi kinachusha. 2 (sl) uza (bidhaa kuukuu au za wizi). ~ging n kuchapa kwa kiboko au mjeledi.

flood n 1 mafuriko The Flood (rel)

Gharika. 2 wingi, mbubujiko ~ of tears mbubujiko wa machozi. 3 ~ tide n maji kujaa. ~ gate n mlango wa kuzuia/kutoa maji. ~lights n (pl) taa kubwa zenye mwanga mkali. ~light vt angaza kwa taa kubwa. vt,vi 1 furika. 2 (of rain) sababisha mafuriko. 3 ~ out furika; lazimisha kuhama kwa sababu ya mafurikio; (fig) ~ the market jaza/sheheneza bidhaa (ili kuteremsha bei). 4 ~ in -ja kwa wingi.

floor n 1 sakafu. wipe the ~ with something shinda mtu (k.m. kwenye ugomvi au mabishano). ~ board n ubao wa sakafu; mbao. ~ show n maonyesho (katika hoteli, mkahawa n.k.). 2 ghorofa. ground ~n (GB) ghorofa ya chini. first ~ (GB)

floozy

ghorofa ya kwanza; (US) ghorofa ya chini. 3 chini (ya bahari, pango n.k.). 4 sehemu ya bunge wanapokaa wajumbe. take the ~ ongea katika mdahalo/majadiliano. the ~ n haki ya kuzungumza/ongea hadharani the delegate has the ~ mjumbe ana haki ya kuzungumza. 5 (of prices) bei ya chini kabisa. ~ing n vifaa vya kutengenezea sakafu. vt 1 sakafia. 2 angusha ~ a man in a boxing match angusha mtu kwenye ndondi. 3 (of a problem, argument) tatiza, shinda; changanya.

floozy; floozie n malaya.

flop vt,vi 1 enda/anguka kwa kishindo; jipweteka, jitupa. 2 ~ down weka/ angusha kizembe. 3 (sl) (of a book, a play for the theatre etc) shindwa, -tofanikiwa. n 1 kishindo. 2 (sl) ushinde (wa kitabu, mchezo n.k.). ~py adj laini sana. ~py disk n sahani/diski laini/tepe adv kwa kishindo. flop-house n hoteli ya hali ya chini kabisa (agh ya wanaume).

flora n flora: mimea yote ya nchi fulani au ya kipindi maalum. ~l adj -a maua. florescence n hali ya maua kuchanua; wakati mmea unapotoa maua. floriculture n kilimo cha maua. florist n muuza maua. florid adj 1 -liorembwa/nakshiwa sana; -enye mapambo na rangi nyingi mno; (of music etc.) -liotiwa madoido mengi mno. 2 (of a person's face) -ekundu (kwa asili). floridly adv.

floss n nyuzi za hariri juu ya kimvugu. ~ silk n hariri iliyosokotwa kwa nyuzi hizo. candy ~ n sukari laini iliyotengenezwa kwa mfano huo. ~y adj.

flotation n see floatation.

flotilla n msafara wa manowari ndogo. flotsam n (leg) mabaki ya meli/shehena

yanayoelea baharini.

flounce1 vi jitupatupa; enda kwa

vishindo/haraka/hasira/makeke ~ out of the room toka chumbani kwa makeke. n kujitupatupa; kwenda kwa hasira/makeke.

flower

flounce2 n (often ornamental) lesi au pambo la kitambaa katika upindo wa nguo. vt sawazisha kwa pambo la lesi/kitambaa.

flounder1 vi tapatapa; hangaika (kwa bidii bila mafanikio); (fig) sita, tatanika, -wa na wasiwasi ~ through an explanation tatanika katika utoaji maelezo.

flounder2n (aina ya) wayo.

flour n unga ~ mill mashine, kinu cha kusagia unga ~ moth nondo aharibuye unga. vt funika kwa/ nyunyizia unga. ~y adj.

flourish vt,vi 1 sitawi; fanikiwa; shamiri his business is ~ing shughuli/biashara yake inafanikiwa. 2 pepea, punga; tikisa she ~ed a knife alipepea kisu. 3 (of a famous person) -wa mchangamfu na mwenye ari. 4 tia mapambo, nakshi, urembo (katika muziki, maandishi n.k.). n usitawi; mapambo, nakshi, madoido katika maandishi; milio na vishindo vya matarumbeta, chereko.

flout vt pinga; dhihaki, dharau. n dhihaka, dharau.

flow vi 1 bubujika, tiririka the river~s into Lake Malawi mto ule unatiririka katika ziwa Malawi. 2 (of hair, articles of dress) ning'inia. ~ing robes n magauni ya kuning'inia. 3 -wa matokeo ya, tokana na; success~s from hard work mafanikio yanatokana na bidii katika kazi; (of the tide) jaa. n (sing. only) 1 mtiririko, mbubujiko, mkondo. 2 (abundance) wingi kiasi a good ~ of water mtiririko wa maji mengi a ~of angry words mbubujiko wa maneno ya hasira/makali. ~ chart/diagram n mchoro wenye kuonyesha hatua kwa hatua uhusiano au utaratibu wa vitu katika mfumo.

flower n 1 ua. in ~ -enye maua, -liochanua. ~-bed n kitalu cha maua. ~-bud n tumba la ua. ~ garden n bustani ya maua. ~-girl n msichana muuza maua. ~ children/ people n (colloq in the 1960's)

flu

washabiki wa Mahipi, wahuni; washabiki wa upendo na amani. ~-power n mawazo ya watu kama hao. ~-pot n chungu cha (kuoteshea) maua. ~-show n maonyesho ya maua. 2 the ~ of kipeo cha (uzuri/umuhimu) the ~ of the nation's youth wabora miongoni mwa vijana wa taifa. 3 ~ of speech n misemo, mbinu na madoido. ~ed adj -liopambwa maua. vi toa maua; chanua. burst into ~s pamba, tapakaa maua. ~y adj -enye maua mengi; (fig) -enye misemo mingi ya madoido. ~ language n lugha ya madoido. ~less adj -sio na/toa maua.

flu n (colloq abbr of) influenza.

fluctuate vi (of levels, prices etc)

panda na kushuka, badilikabadilika. fluctuation n kupanda na kushuka, mabadilikobadiliko.

flue n dohani.

fluent adj (of a person) -enye kusema lugha (bila shida); (of speech) sanifu; fasaha ~ Swahili Kiswahili fasaha. ~ly adv. fluency n ufasaha.

fluff n 1 kibonge cha sufi, manyoya, malaika. 2 (colloq) kosa (katika kutenda jambo). vt 1 ~ (out) kung'uta, timua. 2 (colloq) kosea (katika kutenda jambo n.k.). ~y adj -liopamba sufu/manyoya, kama sufu.

fluid adj -a ugiligili, -oevu, -a kuweza kumwagika (k.m. maji, hewa); (of ideas etc) -sio imara, -a kuweza kubadilika. n (chem) ugiligili, uowevu; (colloq) giligili. ~ity n ugiligili.

fluke1 n bahati njema (isiyotegemewa). vt bahatisha; -wa na bahati he ~d alibahatisha.

fluke2 n 1 (of anchor) ncha ya nanga. 2 mkia wa nyangumi.

fluke3 n mnyoo bapa (katika ini la kondoo).

flume n mfereji wa kupitishia maji

kwenye kinu (mtambo, mashini); korongo lenye mto (wa matumizi ya kiwanda).

flummox vt (colloq) fadhaisha,

fluster

duwaza.

flung pp of fling.

flunk vt,vi ~ (out) (US colloq) feli, shindwa, -tofaulu (mtihani); felisha.

flunkey; flunky n (derog) 1 mtumishi (aliyevaa sare maalumu). 2 mtu anayejikomba.

fluorescent adj (of substances) -enye kuakisi mwanga. fluorescence n.

fluorine n (chem) (symbol F) florini.

fluoride n (chem) msombo, kampaundi yoyote ya floraidi. fluoridate/ fluoridize vt tia floraidi kwenye maji ili kuzuia kuoza kwa meno. fluoridation; fluoridization n fluor n aina ya kito cha thamani chenye florini. flourspar n madini ya kalisiamu floraidi.

flurry n 1 mvumo wa upepo; mwanguko wa theluji/mvua (wa ghafla na wa muda mfupi). 2 (fig) kiherehere, haraka yenye wasiwasi, hangaiko. vt hangaisha, fadhaisha be flurried hangaika, ona wasiwasi.

flush1 adj 1 ~ (with) -liosawazishwa,

-a kulingana na. 2 (pred) -a kujaa mpaka juu; -enye wingi wa (fedha n.k.). ~ with money -enye fedha nyingi, -liojaa fedha.

flush2 n 1 (of water) kufoka, kububujika. 2 bubujiko la damu; kuiva uso; wekundu usoni. 3 msisimko wa hisia (hasira, furaha n.k.). 4 ustawi, ukuaji. the (first) ~ machipukizi ya kwanza ya mmea in the first ~ of youth katika nyakati za ujana in the full ~ of health katika afya nzuri. vt,vi 1 (of a person, his face) iva uso (-wa mwekundu) kwa sababu ya bubujiko la damu. 2 (of heat, health, emotions etc) iva uso kwa sababu hiyo; (fig) jawa na msisimko/hasira, furaha, majivuno. 3 (of a latrine) vuta maji.

flush3 n (in card games) seti ya karata za aina moja royal ~ seti ya karata tano za juu za aina moja.

flush4 vt,vi 1 (of birds) bumburusha.

2 ~ from/out of kurupusha, timua.

fluster vt,vi vuruga; tia msukosuko;

flute

ingia/tia wasiwasi. n mvurugiko; wasiwasi; msukosuko be in a ~ -wa na msukosuko/wasiwasi, hangaikahangaika.

flute1 n filimbi; zumari. vi piga filimbi/zumari. ~ player n mpiga filimbi/zumari.flutist; (US) flautist n mpiga filimbi/zumari.

flute2 vt tia nakshi ya mifuo. fluting n nakshi ya mifuo.

flutter vt,vi 1 (of birds) pigapiga mabawa (bila kuruka), papatika; papatisha; rukaruka hewani. 2 pepesuka; yugayuga; hangaika; (of loose material) pepea; (agitate) tia wasiwasi, ogofya; (of the heart) dunda upesi. n 1 fazaa; wasiwasi; msukosuko. 2 (usu sing) papatiko. 3 mtetemeko, mtikisiko (wa sauti) katika redio, kinasa sauti n.k. 4 (colloq) kamari; burudani.

fluvial adj -a mto/mtoni.

flux n 1 mfululizo wa mabadiliko. 2

(sing only) mtiririko; mbubujiko. 3 dutu ya kurahisisha kuyeyusha vyuma.

fly1 n nzi. a ~ in the ointment dosari ndogo inayochafua sherehe/furaha. there are no flies on him (fig sl) mjanja, yu mwerevu. (compounds) ~-away adj (of clothes) -a kupwaya; (of persons) badhirifu; -liopoteza fikra. ~-blow n yai la nzi. ~-blown adj (of meat) -lioanza kuoza (kwa sababu ya mayai ya nzi ndani yake); (fig) chafu; bovu. ~-boat n mashua ieleayo. ~book n kijaruba cha kuwekea chambo (nzi) cha kuvulia samaki.~-by-night n mtu atembeaye usiku; mtu asiye mwaminifu. ~-catcher n mtego wa nzi; shore kishungi, tiva. ~-fish vi vua samaki kwa nzi bandia. ~fishing n kuvua samaki kwa nzi bandia. ~ing-leaf n ukurasa mtupu usiopigwa chapa (mwanzoni au mwishoni mwa kitabu). ~-over n (US = over pass) barabara, daraja n.k. ipitayo juu ya barabara nyingine. (GB) ~past n gwaride la Wanaanga.

fly

~-wheel n gurudumu tegemeo. ~-paper n karatasi yenye kunata ya kunasia nzi. ~-sheet n waraka/sekula ya kurasa. ~-swatter; ~-whisk n mwengo, mgwisho. ~-trap n mtego wa kunasia nzi. ~-weight n (of boxing) uzito wa chini. ~er;flier adj 1 mnyama, gari n.k. liendalo kasi mno. 2 mfanyakazi ndani ya ndege hasa rubani. ~ing adj 1 -a kuruka. 2 -a muda mfupi; -a haraka, -a mbio sana. 3 -siyokazwa; -a kupwaya. 4 (compounds) ~ing -ant n kumbikumbi. ~ ing boat n ndege (eropleni) ya majini. ~ing -bomb n roketi yenye bomu la kupiga mbali. ~ing -club n chama cha watu wapendao mchezo wa kuruka (hewani). ~ing -colours n bendera za kupamba/kupepea (agh. wakati wa sherehe). ~ing -column n (mil) kikosi cha jeshi chenye uwezo wa kwenda haraka na kufanya mashambulizi chenyewe. ~ing -field n uwanja wa ndege. ~ing -fish n panzi la bahari: samaki wa nchi za tropiki awezaye kuruka. ~ing -fox n nundu. ~ing -jump n urukaji unaoanza kwa kukimbia. ~ing -saucer n kisahani kinachosemekana kilionekana kikipita angani. ~ing -squad n kikosi cha polisi cha kufukuza wahalifu chenye gari za kasi sana. ~ing -visit n ziara ya muda mfupi; kupitia.

fly2 vi,vt 1 ruka, puruka. ~ high -wa na tamaa ya (kuendelea, kukuza hali n.k.). ~ up ruka angani. the bird has flown mtu anayetafutwa ametoroka. 2 endesha ndege (hewani n.k.); safiri; safirisha (kwa ndege) every day people ~ to Zanzibar from Dar es Salaam kila siku watu husafiri kwa ndege kwenda Zanzibar kutoka Dar es Salaam. 3 kimbia; kimbilia; enda mbio, pita upesi. ~ off toka (enda) ghafla. ~ open funguka (dirisha, mlango n.k.) ghafla. ~ at somebody rukia, shambulia. ~ in the face of pinga;

fly

kana; katalia hadharani/wazi; kuwa dhidi ya/kinyume kabisa cha mambo. ~ into a rage /passion/temper pandwa na hamaki, hasira. ~ to arms twaa silaha kwa ari. ~ to bits/~into pieces pasuka na kutawanyika vipande vipande. ~ to the rescue kimbilia kuokoa maisha. make the feathers/fur ~ sababisha fujo/ugomvi. make the money ~ fuja mali. send somebody ~ing piga/gonga mtu ili aanguke kifudifudi au kwa mgongo. send things ~ing vurumisha vitu pande zote. 4 rusha (tiara, kishada) hewani; pandisha bendera. 5 hajiri.

fly3n 1 (also colloq, pl. used with sing. meaning) lisani, mhalibori. 2 kipande cha turubali kwenye mlango wa hema au gari. 3 ncha ya bendera iliyo mbali na mlingoti.

fly4 adj (sl) -erevu, janja; -siodanganyika.

foal n mwana farasi/punda. in/with ~

(of a mare) -enye mimba. vi,vt (of horse) zaa.

foam n 1 povu, ukafu. 2 (also~-rubber) sponji (agh. hutengenezea matakia, magodoro n.k.). bath ~ n sabuni itowayo povu inayotiwa katika maji ya kuoga. vi toa povu; (fig) ~ing with rage kutazama kwa hasira; kufoka kwa hasira. ~y adj.

fob1n 1 mfuko mdogo wa kutia saa;

ubindo wa saa. 2 kinyororo cha saa.

fob2 vt ~ somebody off with something/something off danganya mtu apokee kitu kisicho na thamani.

fo'c'sle n see forecastle.

focus n 1 fokasi, kitovu: mahali miale ya nuru au moto ikutanapo; mahali kitu kionekanapo vizuri zaidi kwa macho. out of ~ -enye mauzauza. 2 kiini, mahali penye jambo hasa. vt ~ (on) 1 weka fokasi, lenga. 2 ~ on lenga, sisitiza. focal adj -a fokasi, -lio kwenye fokasi; -liolenga. focal-plane n 1 eneo la kutazamia. 2 (shutter) pazia la fokasi.

fold

fodder n 1 chakula kikavu, nyasi kavu (kwa ajili ya kulisha mifugo). vt lisha (mifugo) kwa nyasi kavu.

foe n (poet) adui.

foetus;fetus n kijusi. foetal; fetal adj. fog n 1 ukungu, mavunde, kungugu be in a ~ (fig) -toelewa -tojua, chaganyikiwa. ~-bank n ukungu mzito juu ya bahari. ~-bound adj -sioweza kuendelea na safari kwa sababu ya ukungu. ~horn n parapanda ya kutangaza hatari ya ukungu baharini. ~ signal n ishara ya ukungu relini. 2 hali ya ukunguukungu kwenye picha au filamu. vt,vi funikwa; funika na ukungu; (fig) changanya, pumbaza. ~gy adj 1 -enye ukungu. 2 (fig) -sioelewa/jua I haven't the ~giest idea sina hata fununu. ~giness n.

foible n kosa/hitilafu ndogo (ya tabia, fikra za mtu) one of his ~s is to think he can sing moja ya kasoro zake ni kujiona kuwa anaweza kuimba (kumbe wapi).

foil1 n 1 jaribosi. 2 mtu/kitu kinacho

dhihirisha uzuri/ubora wa kingine kwa kuvilinganisha.

foil2 n kitara kisicho na ncha kali (cha kufanyia mazoezi, kuchezea).

foil3 vt zuia; kwamisha.

foist vt ~ something off on somebody; ~ somebody off with something ghilibu mtu akubali kitu kisicho na thamani.

fold1 vt,vi 1 kunja, pinda. 2 (the arms) ~ one's arms kunja mikono/ kumbatia; ~ somebody to one's breast kumbatia; kunjamana, jikunjakunja. ~ (up) (fig) kumbatia mtu kifuani. 3 kunjikana; (colloq) filisika, shindwa kibiashara. 4 funga; kunja; funika. 5 changanya; koroga n kunjo, kibonde; (of man's loin cloth used as a pocket) kibindo. ~ mountain n mlima kunjamano. ~er n 1 folda (kifuko cha karatasi ngumu cha kubebea karatasi). 2 kijitabu cha matangazo, ratiba n.k., brosha.

fold2 n 1 zizi, boma la mifugo. 2 (fig)

foliage

kundi la waumini. return to the ~ rejea katika kundi la waumini nyumbani.

foliage n majani (ya mmea). foliaceous adj 1 -a jani, -enye viungo kama jani. 2 -enye tabaka nyembamba. foliar adj (bot) -a jani -enye kufanana na majani. foliate vt chanua adj -enye umbo la jani. foliation n.

folio n 1 ukurasa, folio, sahifa. 2 (of

ledger) kurasa mbili za daftari zinazoelekeana,(upande mmoja wa matumizi na wa pili wa mapato). 3 namba ya ukurasa wa kitabu. 4 ukurasa mkubwa na karatasi iliyokunjwa mara moja; kitabu kikubwa chenye kurasa namna hii.

folk n 1 watu kwa jumla. 2 (incompounds) ~ dance n ngoma ya jadi. ~lore n elimu ya mila na desturi za jamii fulani, sanaa (ya) jadi. ~medicine n madawa ya kienyeji, mitishamba. ~-music n muziki wa jadi. ~ tale n ngano, hadithi. 3 (pl) (colloq) ndugu wa familia moja, jamaa my old ~s at home ndugu zangu wa nyumbani. ~sy adj (colloq) cheshi; kunjufu.

follicle n kinyeleo, kinyweleo.

follow vt,vi 1 fuata, andama don't ~ him usimfuate. ~ on fuata baada ya muda. ~ through kamilisha pigo; maliza jukumu; timiza ahadi. 2 fuata/shika njia. 3 elewa, fahamu (hoja, jambo linalojadiliwa) do you ~ my argument? unaelewa hoja yangu. 4 fanya kazi fulani. ~ the law fanya kazi ya uanasheria. 5 iga; igiza, fuatisha vitendo vya mtu fulani, fuata nyayo. 6 tokana na it ~s from what you say that kutokana na unavyo sema inaonekana kwamba. 7 ~ something out fuatia jambo hadi mwisho. ~something up fuatilia. ~-up n kitu (k.m. barua, waraka n.k.) kinachofuatilia kitu kilichotangulia; ufuatiliaji. ~er n 1 mfuasi; muunga mkono; (disciple) mwanafunzi. 2 mfuatiliaji. ~ing adj -nayofuata. the ~ing n jambo

fool

linalofuata;kundi la wafuasi. he has a large ~ing ana wafuasi wengi.

folly n upuuzi; upumbavu.

foment vt 1 kanda/chua kwa dawa/maji

moto. 2 (excite) (fig) chochea; chokoza. ~ation n 1 majimoto/ dawa ya kukanda/kuchua. 2 (instigation) uchochezi; uchokozi.

fond adj 1 (pred only) be ~ of penda.

2 -enye upendo a ~ mother mama mwenye upendo. 3 -nayopenda mno (hadi kuwa -jinga). 4 -a ndoto, matumaini, matarajio ambayo uwezekano wake wa kutimizika ni mdogo sana. ~ly adv 1 kwa upendo. 2 kwa matumaini ya kijinga. ~ness n upendo.

fondant n peremende laini yenye kuyeyuka mdomoni.

fondle vt papasa/tomasatomasa kwa

mahaba; bembeleza ~ somebody's hair gusa nywele kwa mapenzi.

font1 n 1 fonti: kisima cha maji ya ubatizo. 2 kitungi cha mafuta katika taa. ~al adj 1 -a asili. 2 -a chemchemi. 3 -a ubatizo.

font2 n see fount.

fontanel; fontanelle n utosi wa mtoto mchanga.

food n chakula, maakuli ~ chain (mfuatano wa) mlishano ~ crops mazao ya chakula. ~-stuff n vyakula ~ for thought jambo la kuwazia. ~less adj bila chakula.

fool1 n 1 mpumbavu. be a ~ for one's pains fanya jambo lisilokuletea pato wala shukurani. be/live in a ~'s paradise -wa na furaha ya kipumbavu isiyodumu. be sent/go on a ~s errand tumwa/fanya jambo lisilo na faida. make a ~ of somebody danganya, ghilibu mtu; mfanye mtu aonekane mpumbavu. play the ~ jifanye mpumbavu. There is no ~ like an old ~ (prov) mzee mpumbavu ndiye mpumbavu hasa. 2 (in the Middle Ages) mchekeshaji (aliyeajiriwa na mtawala au muungwana). 3 April ~ n mtu aliyedanganywa kwenye

fool

sikukuu ya wapumbavu (yaani tarehe 1 Aprili). All F~s' Day n Sikukuu ya Wapumbavu. 4 (used attrib, colloq) mpumbavu. vi,vt 1 ~(about/around) -wa kama mpumbavu, chezacheza stop ~ing (about!) acha upuuzi. 2 ~ something (out of something) danganya. ~ery n tabia ya kipumbavu; matendo/ mawazo/matamshi ya kipumbavu. ~-hardy adj jasiri mno/pasibusara; -a kujihatarisha bure. ~-hardiness n ujasiri (bila busara) wa kipumbavu. ~ish adj pumbavu. ~ ishtalk n upuuzi he is ~ish hana akili. ~ishly adv. ~ishness n. ~proof adj -sio na hitilafu.

fool2 n aina ya chakula kitamu (kinachotengenezwa kwa matunda na malai au faluda).

foot n 1 mguu, kanyagio, wayo. on ~ (kwenda) kwa miguu, kwa kutembea; (fig) -lioanzishwa tayari the project is on ~ mradi umeshaanza (na sasa unaendelea). be on one's feet -wa wima; simama, inuka (ili kusema jambo fulani) the Minister was on his feet at once to answer the charge Waziri alisimama mara moja kujibu shitaka; (fig) -wa na afya njema baada ya kuugua. fall on one's feet (colloq) -wa na bahati, bahatika. have feet of clay -wa mnyonge au mwoga. have one ~ in the grave karibia kufa (k.m. kutokana na uzee), chungulia kaburi. keep one's feet -toanguka (k.m. wakati unatembea kwenye utelezi. put one's ~ down (colloq) kataa; pinga; shikilia msimamo. put one's ~ in it (colloq) sema au fanya kosa au upuuzi; boronga. put one's feet up (colloq), pumzika huku miguu imenyooshwa, miguu juu. put one's best ~ forward tekeleza kazi yako haraka iwezekanavyo. set something/ somebody on its/his ~ wezesha mtu/kitu kijitegemee. set something on ~ anzisha kitu/jambo. sweep somebody off his ~ tia mtu

foot

ari/jazba, hamasisha sana. under ~ chini, ardhini. 2 hatua, mwendo swift of ~ mwendo wa haraka, mwendo mwepesi. 3 sehemu ya chini (ya kitu); tako at the ~ of a hill chini ya mlima. 4 sehemu ya mwisho ya mguuni mwa kitanda au kaburi. 5 (measure) futi. 6 kipimo cha mkazo katika mashairi. 7 (mil. old use) askari wa miguu. 8 (compounds) ~-and mouth disease n shuna, ugonjwa wa midomo na miguu. ~-ball n soka, kandanda. ~ bath n beseni la kunawia miguu. ~-board n kibao cha mwinamo anachokanyaga dereva. ~-bridge n daraja la waendao kwa miguu. ~-fall n sauti ya hatua. ~-fault n (sport (tennis) kosa la hatua (la kuruka msitari wakati wa kupiga mpira mara ya kwanza). ~-hills n vilima vidogo chini ya mlima mkubwa au safu za milima mikubwa. ~-hold n (in climbing) kidato; (fig) mahali pa usalama. ~-lights n taa za chini za jukwaa. the ~-lights (fig) kazi ya uigizaji. ~ loose; ~ loose and fancy free adj huru bila dhima. ~-man n mtumishi wa kiume, mkaribishaji wageni; mtumishi anayekuwa mezani wakati wa chakula. ~-mark n see ~-print; ~-note n rejeo/tanbihi chini ya ukurasa. ~-path n njia ya miguu. ~-plate n (of a train) kijukwaa cha kusimamia dereva na mchochea moto. ~-pound n kipimo cha kazi (cha kunyanyua ratili moja futi moja). ~-print n wayo. ~-race n mashindano ya mbio. ~-rule n rula ya mti au metali (urefu wa inchi 12). ~-slog vi (colloq) enda mbali kwa hatua kubwa na kishindo. ~-slogger n (colloq) mwendaji wa miguu, mtu anayekwenda mwendo mrefu kwa miguu. ~-sore adj -enye jeraha la miguu kutokana na kutembea. ~-step n sauti ya hatua; wayo. follow in one's father's ~ step fuata vitendo vya baba; fuata

footle

nyanyo. ~-stool n kibao cha kuwekea mguu. ~-sure adj -siotetereka; -siochukua hatua potovu; imara. ~-wear n (tradesman term for) viatu. ~-work n namna ya kutembeza miguu kwenye dansi au mchezo wa ngumi. vt,vi 1 fuma mguu wa soksi. 2 ~ it (colloq) nenda kwa miguu, tembea. ~ the bill (colloq) lipa (gharama). ~ed adj (in compounds) -enye miguu kama ilivyoonyeshwa. sure -~ed adj -siotetereka, imara. ~ing n (sing only) 1 usimamaji; mahali pa kusimamia he lost his ~ ing aliteleza; alikunguwaa. 2 nafasi (katika jamii kikundi n.k.). be on a friendly ~ing with (your neighbours) -wa na uhusiano mzuri na majirani zako. 3 hali on a peace/war ~ing katika hali ya amani/vita. ~age n urefu unaopimwa kwa futi (hasa filamu). ~er n 1 (colloq) soka, kandanda. 2 (compounds) a six-~en n mtu mwenye urefu wa futi sita.

footle vi,vt (colloq) chezacheza, fanya upuuzi, danganya. footling adj -sio na maana au muhimu, -a upuuzi.

fop n maridadi, mlimbwende, mno.

~pery n. ~pish adj.

for1 (prep) 1 (indicating destination or progress towards) set out ~ the beach elekea pwani passengers ~ Mombasa abiria waendao Mombasa. 2 (indicating intention) built ~ rough roads -lioundwa kwa barabara mbovu. 3 (indicating ultimate possession) make some coffee ~ the guests tayarisha kahawa kwa ajili ya wageni. be ~ it (colloq) weza kuadhibiwa au kupata shida, pata you are ~ it now utaipata sasa. 4 (indicating preparation for) be ready ~ the long drought jiandae kwa ukame wa muda mrefu. 5 (indicating purpose) read ~ fun soma kwa kujifurahisha. what ~ kwa sababu/ kazi gani. 6 (introducing complement) they were taken ~ crooks

for

walidhaniwa wahuni. ~ certain kwa uhakika/yakini. 7 (with an object of hope, wish, search, inquiry etc) hope ~ the best omba Mungu. 8 (indicating endowment) an aptitude ~ mathematics kipaji/ kipawa cha hisabati. 9 (indicating liking) has a taste ~ wine anapenda mvinyo. 10 (indicating suitability) a man ~ the job mtu anayefaa kazi. 11 (after adj) too little ~ the day's wage kidogo mno kwa ujira wa siku. 12 kwa kuzingatia it is quite an achievement ~ a foreigner ni mafanikio makubwa kwa mgeni. ~ all that licha ya yote hayo. 13 (representing) mwakilishi, kwa niaba ya; badala ya, kwa/badala ya. stand ~ wakilisha. 14 (in defence or support of) she was ~ mult- partism aliunga mkono/alitetea vyama vingi. 15 (with regard to) ~ my part kwa upande wangu I am hard up ~money kuhusu fedha nimeishiwa kabisa. 16 kwa sababu ya blame ~ the delay laumu kwa (sababu ya) kuchelewa. 17 (after a comparative) my shoes are the worse ~ wear viatu vyangu vimezidi (kwa) kuchakaa. 18 licha ya; dhidi ya ~ all you say, I still enjoy his company bado nafurahia usuhuba wake licha ya yote usemayo. 19 kwa kiasi cha reserve two seats ~ $ 50 weka/shika viti viwili vya (kiasi cha) $ 50. 20 (in exchange for) plant two trees ~ every tree you cut down panda miti miwili kwa kila mti unaoukata. 21 (in contrast with) ~ one enemy she had a hundred friends kwa kila adui mmoja alikuwa na marafiki mia moja. 22 (duration) I shall be away ~ three weeks nitakuwa sipo/ nitaondoka kwa majuma matatu. 23 (distance) we walked ~ twenty kilometers without meeting a soul tulitembea kwa kilomita ishirini bila kukutana na mtu. 24 (as part of the subject) ~ a man to chair a women's association is impossible

for

kwa mwanaume kuwa mwenyekiti wa chama cha wanawake ni muhali.

for2 conj kwa kuwa; kwani, kwa maana, maana I asked her to join us ~ she was all alone nilimtaka aungane nasi kwani alikuwa mpweke. forage n 1 chakula cha farasi (punda, ng'ombe). 2 kutafuta chakula. (mil) ~-cap n kofia ya kazi ya askari. vt ~ (for) tafuta chakula, tafuta (kitu chochote); nyang'anya. ~ for oneself jitegemea. ~r n mtafutaji chakula.

foramen n (anat) tundu, shimo dogo,

kilango.

forasmuch as adj conj kwa kuwa,

kwa sababu.

foray n uvamizi. vt vamia.

forbad/farbade pt. of forbid.

forbear1 vt,vi ~ (from) stahamili, vumilia; epuka. ~ance n. ~ing adj.

forbear2 n (US forebear) (usu pl) mhenga.

forbid vt kataza, kanya, piga marufuku ~ somebody the house kataza mtu nyumbani. God ~ Mungu apishe mbali! ~den adj -liokatazwa, mwiko. ~den fruit n jambo linalotamaniwa sana lakini mwiko/marufuku. ~ding adj -a kuogofya, -a kutisha, -kali. ~dingly adv.

forby(e) (arch.) prep/adv tena, zaidi ya.

force n 1 kani, nguvu the ~ of a blow

nguvu ya pigo by sheer ~ kwa nguvu tu. in ~ (usu of people) kwa wingi. in full ~ kwa nguvu zote. 2 (energy) bidii, juhudi, jitihada. join ~s with unganisha nguvu/juhudi. 3 (violence) jeuri, dhulumu. 4 by ~ kwa nguvu/mashauri ya nguvu. 5 the ~ n polisi. 6 (pl) ~s n majeshi. join the ~s jiunga na jeshi. 7 (gram) maana, what is the ~ of `for' here? `for' ina maana gani hapa? 8 (leg) amri, sharti, nguvu. be in ~ tumika. put a law into ~ fanya sheria itumike. vt 1 lazimisha; shurutisha, vunja/pasua kwa nguvu. ~ a

fore

person's hand shurutisha mtu kufanya kitu. ~an entry ingia kwa nguvu. ~ landing n kutua kwa dharura. ~ land vt,vi tua kwa dharura. 2 (fasten growth) komaza mmea haraka (kwa kutumia joto n.k.); (fig) ~ a pupil fanya mwanafunzi ajifunze kwa muda mfupi kwa kumpa masomo ya ziada. 3 fanya jambo kwa kujilazimisha ~ a laugh cheka kwa kujilazimisha (wakati mtu hana furaha). ~-feed vt (~-fed) lazimisha (mnyama, mfungwa, mgonjwa) kula au kunywa. ~ful adj (of person, his character, of argument) 1 -enye nguvu; -enye kani. 2 -a kujitokeza; -a maana. ~fully adv. ~fulness n. ~ majeure n (leg) jambo lisilozuilika; nguvu kubwa. ~-meat n kima (nyama iliyokatwakatwa au kusagwa na kutiwa viungo, hutumika k.m. kujazia kuku kabla ya kumpika). ~meat balls n kababu. forcible adj 1 -liofanywa kwa nguvu. forcible entry n kuingia kwa nguvu. 2 (of a person, his acts words etc) -enye kuvuta, -enye kushawishi. forcibly adv.

forceps n koleo (inayotumiwa na madaktari hasa wa meno).

ford n kivuko cha maji mafupi. vt vuka mto kwa miguu/kwa gari. ~able adj.

fore adj (attrib only) -a mbele, -a kutangulia, -a omo. to the ~ tayari kufanya jambo; papo hapo; maarufu. come to the ~ -wa maarufu adv (naut) mbele. ~ and aft tezini na omoni; kwa urefu wa meli ~ and aft sail tanga lisilo mraba int (golf) oha! (tamko la kutahadharisha walio mbele kuwa mchezaji anataka kupiga mpira). ~arm n kigasha, mkono (tangu kiko mpaka kitanga). ~arm vt (usu passive) -pa silaha kabla/ mapema; weka tayari (kwa vita). ~bode vt (formal) 1 -wa dalili ya. 2 agua, bashiri. ~boding n ubashiri. ~cast vt tabiri n utabiri the weather

fore

~ utabiri wa hali ya hewa. ~castle n (in some merchant ships) sitaha ya gubeti. ~close vt,vi ~close (on) leg) chukua mali ya mkopaji aliyeshindwa kulipa kwa wakati uliokubaliwa. ~closure n. ~court n baraza (iliyojengewa) mbele ya nyumba. ~doom vt (usu passive) ~doom (to) panga kwa kudra, an attempt ~doomed to failure jaribio lililopangiwa kushindwa. ~father n (usu pl) mhenga. ~-feet n see ~foot. ~finger n kidole cha shahada. ~foot n mguu wa mbele wa mnyama cross a ship's ~foot kata njia ya meli. ~- front n 1 sehemu ya mbele kabisa. 2 (mil) mstari wa mbele. ~gather vi see forgather. ~ground n 1 mbele, sehemu ya mandhari (hasa kwenye picha) iliyo karibu ya mtazamaji. 2 (fig) mahali penye kuonekana vizuri. ~head n paji la uso a broad ~head bapa la uso. a projecting ~head komo la uso. ~ knowledge n kujua kitu kabla hakijatokea. ~land n rasi. ~leg n mguu wa mbele (wa mnyama). ~mast n (naut) mlingoti wa mbele. ~most adj -a mbele, -a kwanza; -kuu adv. kwanza; muhimu. first and ~most kwanza kabisa. ~name n (as used in official style) jina la kwanza (sio la ukoo). ~ordain vt amuru mbele; teua kabla. ~runner n 1 mtangulizi, mtakadamu. 2 dalili/ ishara ya mambo yatakayotokea. ~sail n (naut) tanga kuu la mbele. ~see vt ona mbele; jua ya mbele/yajayo. ~seeable adj -enye kutabirika. ~seeable future n kipindi cha karibuni ambacho matokeo yake yanatabirika. ~sight n uwezo wa kutabiri; uangalifu katika kujitayarisha kwa mambo ya baadaye; busara ya kuganga yajayo. ~taste n. limbuko. ~show vt tabiri, onyesha dalili ya mwonjo wa awali a ~ show of suffering mwonjo wa kwanza wa mateso. ~tell vt agua, tabiri, bashiri ~tell somebody's success tabiri

foretop

ushindi wa fulani. ~thought n mawazo/mipango ya busara kwa faida ya baadaye; kuona mbali. ~time n (arch) nyakati za zamani; zama za kale. ~token vt toa dalili/ ishara ya; onya mapema. n ishara/dalili ya yajayo. ~told pt pp of ~tell. ~warn vt onya (asa, kanya) mapema. forego vt see forgo.

foreign adj 1 -geni, -a kigeni, -a

nchi za nje. ~ affairs n mambo ya nchi za nje. 2 ~ to -siohusu; -sio -ake a ~ body in the eye kitu kilichoingia jichoni (k.m. uchafu) ~ languages lugha za kigeni. ~er n mgeni anayeishi katika nchi.

forelock n kishungi, shore juu ya paji. take the occasion by the ~ tumia wasaa barabara.

foreman n 1 msimamizi; mnyapara. 2

(leg) kiongozi wa baraza la wazee.

forenoon n (old use) asubuhi, mchana kabla ya saa sita.

forensic adj -a mahakama (na mambo, maneno yake); -a barazani, -inayohitajika na mahakama. ~ skill n ustadi unaohitajika na mahakama.

foreplay n unyegereshano/utianaji nyege (kabla ya tendo).

foreshadow vt -onyesha dalili/ishara ya the clouds ~ rain mawingu huwa dalili ya mvua.

foreshore n ufuko (ulioendelezwa).

foreshorten vt (in drawing pictures) chora picha kwa mlingano/uwiano na

kitu chenyewe.

foreskin n govi.

forest n 1 msitu. ~ reserve n pori, hifadhi ya msitu. 2 mbuga. 3 (fig) mandhari inayofananishwa na msitu a ~ of masts msitu wa milingoti. ~er n bwana miti/misitu. ~ry n elimu misitu.

forestall vt bananga, vuruga (mipango ya mtu) kwa kufanya jambo mapema bila kutegemewa/kuwahi.

foreswear v see forswear.

foretop n (naut) kishungi juu ya mlingoti wa meli.

forever

forever adj milele, daima.

foremore adv milele na milele. forewoman n see foreman.

foreword n dibaji.

forfeit vt 1 poteza, twaliwa, nyanganywa (kwa adhabu ya kosa). 2 toa haka. n 1 haka, fidia; faini. 2 (pl) mchezo ambao mchezaji hutoa vitu kadha kwa kufanya makosa na kurudishiwa kwa kutoa faini ya kichekesho. ~ure n utwaliwaji wa mali kama haka, usabiliaji.

forgather; foregather vi kutana, onana.

forgave pt of forgive.

forge1 n 1 karakana ya kulehemu na kufua vyuma. 2 karakana yenye kalibu. vt 1 unda kwa kulehemu na kuponda kwa nyundo (fig) their friendship was ~d by shared adversity urafiki wao ulitokana na matatizo yaliyowapata kwa pamoja. 2 buni, ghushi. ~r n mdanganyifu, mbini. ~ry n 1 ubuni, ughushi, udanganyifu. 2 hati au maandishi yaliyobuniwa/ghushiwa. forging n kipande cha metali kilicholehemiwa au kupondwa.

forge2 vi ~ahead endelea mbele (in a race etc), ongoza.

forget vt,vi 1 ~ (about) sahau, pitiwa never to be forgotten -siosahaulika let's ~ our differences tusahau tofauti zetu. 2 ~ oneself jichukua visivyo, jisahau, fikiria zaidi juu ya wengine kuliko binafsi. ~ful adj -sahaulifu. ~fully adv. ~fulness n usahaulifu.

forgive vt,vi 1 ~ somebody for doing something samehe, ghofiri ~ me niwie radhi, kumradhi, nisamehe ~ each other sameheana. 2 achilia, burai do please ~ his debt tafadhali mburaie deni lake. forgivable adj -a kusameheka. forgiving adj -enye huruma; -enye msamaha, -lio tayari kusamehe. forgivingly adv. ~ness n msamaha, buraa. ask for ~ness omba msamaha.

forgo vt samehe, achilia.

form

forgone pp of forgo.

forgot pt of forget.

forgotten pp of forget.

fork n 1 uma. ~ lunch/supper bufe n

(mlo wa watu wengi). 2 (for gardening) rato. 3 (of roads) njia panda. 4 ~-lift truck n foko. vt,vi 1 inua, beba kwa foko ~ in manure chimbia mbolea kwa reki/rato. 2 (of a road, river) gawanyika, fanya mikondo/mikono katika, (of persons) geuka (kushoto au kulia). 3 ~ something out; ~ up/out (colloq) lipa. ~ed adj -enye kugawanyika sehemu mbili au zaidi; -a uzandiki.

forlorn adj (poet or liter) -pweke;

-kiwa, -sio na mategemeo; -liotupwa. ~ hope n shughuli isiyo na mategemeo ya kufaulu. ~ly adv. ~ness n upweke; ukiwa.

form n 1 umbo, sura, jinsi what is its~? ina umbile gani? she has a good ~ ana umbo zuri. 2 (prescribed order) taratibu, desturi; mtindo literary ~ fani, mtindo wa maandishi. good/bad ~n desturi njema/mbaya. 3 (pattern) muundo, aina ~ of government muundo wa serikali. 4 (gram) umbo la neno (katika matamshi au tahajia) different in ~ but identical in meaning yanatofautiana kwa umbo lakini yana maana sawa. 5 maadili, taratibu (za jadi); hali ya mwili. in/out of ~; on/off ~ -wa katika hali nzuri/mbaya. (esp. of horses and athletes) out of ~ -sioelekea kushinda. do something for ~'s sake fanya jambo kutimiza mradi/ada. 6 kawaida katika kufanya jambo (k.m. salamu, usemi). 7 fomu application ~s fomu za maombi. 8 uchangamfu, ubashasha he was in great ~ at the party alikuwa na ubashasha kwenye karamu. 9 (seat) fomu, benchi. 10 kidato. ~less adj bila umbo, ovyo. ~lessly adv. vt,vi 1 unda; umba (sura); tunga ~ words and sentences unda maneno na kutunga sentensi. 2

fanya, fanyiza, tengeneza, panga ~two rows panga/fanya mistari miwili. 3 anzisha ~ a class of adults anzisha darasa la watu wazima. 4 -wa sehemu ya, fanya this building ~s part of the school buildings jengo hili ni sehemu ya majengo ya shule. 5 ~ into (mil) enda/fuata mpango maalum the section ~ed three ranks kikosi kiliunda/kilifuata safu tatu. 6 fanyika, chukua, kuwa umbo/sura the idea ~ed in his mind wazo lilipata umbo akilini. ~al adj 1 (prescribed) rasmi, -a utaratibu uliozoeleka/kubalika ~al dress vazi rasmi. 2 (of garden etc) pacha. 3 -a sura au umbo la nje; -a fani. 4 ~al grammar sarufi maumbo. ~ally adv. ~alism n urasmi. ~alist n mrasimu, mshika desturi. ~ality n 1 urasmi, urasmi wa. 2 kanuni, urasimu. (leg) ~alities n urasmi wa kisheria. ~alize vt rasimisha. ~at n 1 umbo na ukubwa wa kitabu (maandishi, karatasi, ujalidi). 2 muundo the examination ~at muundo wa mitihani. ~ation n 1 uumbaji, utengenezaji the ~ ation of characters uumbaji wa wahusika. 2 muundo au mpango. ~ative adj -enye kupatia umbo, -enye kuumba, -enye kutengeneza, -enye kujenga.

formaldehyde n (chem) gesi ya maji ya kidhuru bakteria.

former adj 1 -a awali, -a kipindi cha

mwanzo, -a zamani. 2 (also as pron) the ~ (contrasted with the latter) -liotajwa mwanzo, -a mwanzoni.

formica n fomaika.

formidable adj 1 -a kuogofya, -a

kutisha. 2 gumu; ngome. formidably adj.

formula n 1 virai vinavyotumika sana kwenye mazungumzo, k.m. how d'you do ? uhali gani? excuse me samahani thank you asante. 2 fomyula, k.m. H2 0 (maji); 0 oksijeni. ~te vt eleza kwa usahihi na kueleweka; unda/eleza kwa utaratibu. ~tion n.

fornication n uzinzi. fornicate vt zini.

fortune

forrader adv (colloq) mbele zaidi there is a sign of getting ~ kuna dalili ya kuendelea mbele.

forsake vt telekeza, tupa; toroka ~

one's parents telekeza/toroka wazazi.

forsooth adv (old use) (used in irony) kwa kweli, kwa hakika.

forswear vt 1 acha (kufanya jambo) ~ smoking acha kuvuta sigara. 2 ~ oneself sema uongo chini ya kiapo.

fort/~ress n ngome; husuni, boma.

forte1 n kipaji, uwezo, his special ~ is teaching uwezo/kipaji chake ni katika kufundisha.

forte2 adj,adv (mus) kwa nguvu/sauti. fortissimo adj, adv kwa sauti kubwa

sana.

forth adv 1 (formal) mbele, kwa mbele from this day ~ kutoka leo na kuendelea. and so ~ na kadhalika. back and ~ kwenda mbele na nyuma. 2 (arch) nje. ~coming adj 1 -liokaribu kutokea. 2 (pred) patikana, -tayari kutumika/kuja. 3 (of a person) -lio tayari kusaidia/kutoa habari.

forthright adj kweli, wazi.

forthwith adv mara moja, bila kukawia.

fortify vt 1 ~ (against) imarisha

(mahali) dhidi ya mashambulizi (kwa kuta, mahandaki, bunduki). 2 (of a person) jikinga na (baridi, maadui n.k.), jiimarisha. fortification n 1 kuimarisha, kutia nguvu. 2 kitu kinachoimarisha. 3 (pl) ngome.

fortitude n ushupavu, uvumilivu (wakati wa maumivu, shida, taabu, hatari n.k.), ustahimilivu.

fortnight n wiki mbili, siku kumi na nne ~'s rest mapumziko ya majuma mawili this day a ~ wiki mbili kuanzia leo. ~ly adj,adv -a wiki mbili; kila wiki mbili.

fortuitous adj (formal) -a bahati, -a

nasibu. ~ly adv. ~ness n. fortuity n.

fortune n 1 bahati the ~ (s) of war matokeo ya vita. try one's ~

bahatisha, jaribu bahati. tell somebody his ~ bashiri, pigia ramli. ~teller n mpiga ramli, mwaguzi. 2 ustawi, neema, baraka, mafanikio. 3 mali, utajiri, fedha nyingi. come into a ~ rithi fedha nyingi. marry a ~ oa mtu tajiri. a small ~ n fedha nyingi. make a ~ pata/tengeneza fedha nyingi, tajirika. ~ hunter n mtu atafutaye utajiri kwa ndoa. fortunate adj -a bahati, -enye bahati I was fortunate in finding nilibahatika kugundua how fortunate! bahati iliyoje! fortunately adv.

forty n, adj arubaini a woman of ~

mwanamke wa miaka arubaini. fortieth -a arubaini.

forum n (in ancient Rome) baraza.

forward adj 1 -a mbele, -a kutangulia; -a kuendeleza/kuelekea mbele. 2 (of plants, crops, seasons, children) -liostawi, -liokua, -nayoendelea vizuri. 3 -a kimbelembele. 4 -enye shauku. 5 (of opinions etc) -a mbele ya wakati. 6 (comm) -a kutumika baadaye ~ prices bei za kutumika baadaye. n (in games) fowadi. ~ness n. vt 1 himiza/sukuma mbele (mambo, kazi n.k.). 2 peleka; safirisha; tuma, (mizigo, barua n.k.) ~ goods to somebody pelekea mtu mizigo ~ my letters to the new station peleka barua zangu kwenye kituo kipya (cha kazi). ~ing agent n wakala wa usafirishaji mizigo. ~ing instructions n maagizo ya ufikishaji/usafirishaji mizigo. ~(s) adv 1 mbele, kwa mbele go ~ sogea, nenda mbele. 2 kwa kuendelea mbele from this day ~ kuanzia leo na kuendelea. look ~ to something ngojea/tarajia/tegemea kwa furaha. bring ~ onyesha. come ~ jitolea, jionyesha. 3 backward(s) and ~s mbele na nyuma.

fosse n handaki; shimo refu na jembamba (agh. kwa ajili ya ngome au maji).

fossil n 1 kisukuku. 2 (colloq) mtu

asiyekubali kupokea mambo mapya,

found

mtu wa zamani. ~ation n. ~iferous adj. ~ize vt,vi -wa kisukuku.

foster vt 1 lea; kimu. ~brother/sister n ndugu wa kulea. ~ child n mtoto wa ziwa/kulea. ~ parents n walezi. ~ father/mother n baba/mama mlezi. 2 kuza, endeleza ~ musical ability kuza kipaji/uwezo wa muziki. ~er n. ~age n kukimu. ~ing n mtoto wa kulea.

fought pt, pp of fight.

foul adj 1 -a kuchukiza, -a kukirihi; (of smell) -a kunuka; (taste) -mbaya sana a drink with a ~ taste kinywaji chenye ladha mbaya a ~ meal (sl) chakula kibaya; ~ smelling latrine choo kinachonuka. 2 chafu, -a taka a ~ market soko chafu. 3 ovu, potevu, fasiki, (of language) -a matusi; (of the weather) -a dhoruba, -liochafuka. ~ spoken/-mouthed adj -enye maneno machafu. by fair means or ~ kwa halali au dhuluma. 4 ~ play n (in sport) dhambi, kosa; kuvunja sheria; (crime) mauaji, uhalifu wa kutumia nguvu It is ~ play ni kosa la jinai. 5 -liotatizwa; -liozongomezwa a ~ rope kamba iliyozongomezwa. 6 (of a flue, pipe, gun-barrel etc) -lioziba, chafu. 7 fall ~ of (of a ship) gongana na; zongomezwa na; (fig) pata msukosuko, andamwa na. 8 through fair and ~ kwa mema na mabaya, kwa njia yoyote ile. ~ly adv. ~ness n. vt,vi ~ up 1 tia taka, chafua. 2 pambana, gongana; tatiza; zongomeza. 3 fanya faulu/dhambi.

foulard n kitambaa cha hariri.

found1 pt,pp of find.

found2 vt 1 weka msingi wa, anzisha. 2 fadhili ili kianzishwe ~ a new institute fadhili taasisi mpya. 3 ~ something on/upon weka juu ya misingi ya a story ~ed on facts hadithi inayotokana na ukweli. ~ation n 1 uanzishaji (wa shule, mji, taasisi n.k.). 2 kitu kilichoanzishwa (k.m. taasisi,

shirika, chuo, hospitali n.k.). 3 mfuko wa fedha kwa ajili ya kutoa misaada. 4 (often pl.) msingi wa jengo. ~ation stone n jiwe la msingi. 5 kanuni/msingi wa jambo, imani n.k. 6 ~ation cream n krimu ya usoni (inayotangulia kupakwa kabla ya vipodozi vingine). ~er/ ~ress n mwanzilishi, mwasisi.

found3 vt yeyusha madini na kuimimina ndani ya kalibu. ~ry n kalibu; kiwanda cha kukalibu madini (cha mhunzi).

founder vt,vi 1 (of a ship) zama (kwa kujaa maji). 2 (of a horse) anguka/kwama kwenye matope (kutokana na uchovu). 3 (of a plan) shindwa kabisa. n (of horses) uvimbe (katika mguu).

foundling n mwana mkiwa aliyetelekezwa na wazazi wake, mtoto wa kuokotwa.

fount n 1 (poet) chemchemi. 2 (poet or rhet) chanzo, asili. 3 (also font) (printing) fonti (seti ya herufi za aina fulani). ~ain n 1 chemchemi (agh. iliyojengwa kwa kutumia bomba. drinking- ~ain n mashine/ chemchemi ya maji baridi ya kunywa. ~ainpen n kalamu ya wino. 2 (fig) chanzo, asili. 3 (of burst pipe etc) mbubujiko. ~ainhead n chanzo, asili.

four n, adj namba 4 (nne) a child of ~mtoto wa miaka minne on all ~s kwa kutambaa. be on all ~s with -wa sawasawa na. ~- figured adj a namba 1000-9999. ~ letter word n tusi. ~ fold adj mara nne. ~-in-hand n gari la farasi wanne (US colloq) tai ya shingoni. ~-part adj -lioimbwa na sauti nne. ~pence adj mapeni manne. ~-ply adj -enye tabaka nne. ~-poster n kitanda chenye miti ya chandarua, pazia n.k. ~-pounder n mzinga utupao risasi za ratili nne. ~ score adj, n themanini; -a themanini; korija nne. ~some n 1 mchezo wa wachezaji wanne. 2 watu wanne. ~square adj

-enye umbo mraba; (fig) -nyofu. ~teen n,adj kumi na nne, -a kumi na nne; ~teenth n; adj -a kumi na nne kumi na nne. one ~teenth n moja ya kumi na nne. ~thly adv nne. ~-way adj -enye njia nne. ~wheel adj -enye magurudumu manne. ~ wheel drive adj -enye kuendeshwa kwa magurudumu yote manne.

fowl n 1 (old use) ndege. 2 ndege wanaofugwa hasa kuku. 3 nyama ya kuku, ndege. ~er n mwindaji ndege. ~ing-piece n bunduki ya marisau (ya kupigia ndege). ~pox n ndui. ~-run n uwanja wa kuku (agh. huzungukwa na kizuizi). ~ typhoid n kideri. ~pest n mdondo; kideri.

fox n 1 mbweha. 2 mjanja. ~hole n

(mil.) handaki. ~hound n mbwa wa kuwindia mbweha. ~hunt vi winda mbweha. n uwindaji mbweha. ~y adj 1 -a kama mbweha. 2 janja, -enye hila vt (colloq) 1 laghai; danganya. 2 tatanisha, kanganya n (colloq) laghai, ayari.

foyer n sebule, ukumbi.

fracas n tafrani, ugomvi wenye kelele.

fraction n 1 sehemu ndogo, kipande. 2 (math) sehemu. ~ indices n vipeo sehemu; tarakimu isiyo kamili (k.v. ½, _, (0.76). ~al adj 1 -a sehemu, -a hesabu ya sehemu. ~al distillation n mkeneko sehemu. 2 -dogo sana. ~ate vt (chem) tenganisha kwa kukeneka.

fractious adj gomvi; -enye hasira.

fracture n mvunjiko; kuvunjika he has

a ~ of the leg amevunjika mguu. vt,vi vunja; vunjika.

fragile adj -a kuvunjika upesi (of a

person) dhaifu. fragility n.

fragment n kipande, sehemu; kigae. ~ary adj -a vipande vipande, -siokamilika, -a sehemusehemu. ~ation n kuvunjavunja katika vipande. ~ation bomb n bomu la kuvunjika vipandevipande.

fragrant

fragrant adj 1 -a kunukia, -enye harufu nzuri; -tamu. 2 (fig) -a kupendeza. fragrance n harufu nzuri.

frail adj 1 (of person) dhaifu. 2 (of

things) -a kuvunjika upesi; isio imara. 3 dogo a ~ chance nafasi ndogo. ~ty n udhaifu (pl. ~ties) kasoro.

frame n 1 kiunzi (agh. cha majengo).

~ house n nyumba ya mbao. 2 (of picture, window, glasses etc) fremu (k.m.fremu ya picha au ya miwani). 3 mwili, umbo, gimba. 4 jengo la mbao na vioo la kulinda mimea dhidi ya baridi. 5 ~ of mind n hali (ya muda) ya akili; hasira/furaha in a cheerful ~ of mind katika hali ya furaha. 6 (more usu ~work) mfumo. 7 (photography) sehemu ya picha moja katika filamu ~ work kiunzi; mhimili. vt,vi 1 tengeneza; tunga, buni ~ a sentence tunga sentensi. 2 tia fremu (k.m. picha). 3 endelea; elekea kuendelea; endeleza; toa matumaini ya kuendelea. 4 (sl) singizia, zulia mtu uongo. ~-up n uongo uliozuliwa kumtia mtu hatiani, kusingiziwa; kusingizia.

franc n faranga.

France n Ufaransa.

Franco pref (used in compounds) -a Ufaransa; -a Wafaransa. The ~-German War Vita vya Wafaransa na Wajerumani. ~phile n mshabiki wa Ufaransa. ~phobe n mtu mwenye chuki dhidi ya Ufaransa, mtu aichukiaye Ufaransa. ~phone adj -nayotumia Kifaransa.

franchise n 1 the ~ n haki kamili za uraia zinazotolewa na nchi au mji, (hasa haki ya kupiga kura kwenye uchaguzi). 2 (chiefly US) haki maalum inayotolewa na utawala kwa mtu au kampuni.

francolin n kwale.

frangipane n halua ya lozi.

frangipani n mjinga, msanapiti.

frank1 adj -a kusema kweli, -a

kusema wazi/bila kuficha be quite ~ sema kweli, sema wazi. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

frank2 vt weka stempu au alama; gonga barua kuonyesha kuwa gharama ya usafirishaji imeshalipiwa. ~ing machine n mashine inayoweka bei ya stempu.

frankfurter; frankfurt n soseji ya ng'ombe na nguruwe.

frankincense n ubani, uvumba.

frantic adj -enye wayowayo (kwa hasira, maumivu, majonzi n.k.) drive somebody ~ fanya mtu akasirike; tia wazimu. ~ally adv.

fraternal adj -a kidugu. ~ly adv. fraternity n 1 udugu. 2 chama, shirika, jamii ya watu wenye hali moja. 3 (US) chama cha wanafunzi wanaume. fraternize vi~ (with) suhubiana (na). fraternization n. fratricide n (person guilty of) kuua/muuaji wa kaka/dada. fratricidal adj.

fraud n 1 udanganyifu, ulaghai; hila. 2 mdanganyifu, laghai. ~ulent adj danganyifu, laghai. ~ulently adv.

fraught adj 1 -liojaa, -enye kuleta hatari/maafa/huzuni n.k. 2 -liojaa vitisho; -enye wasiwasi.

fray1 n (lit, fig) ugomvi; mashindano.

fray2 vt,vi 1 (of cloth, rope, etc.) chakaa, chakaza (kutokana na msuguano wa muda mrefu). 2 (fig) choka; chosha; ghadhibika; ghadhibisha.

frazzle n hali ya kutambarika. vt,vi tambarika; tambarisha.

freak n 1 kituko,kioja,shauri tendo/jambo lisilo la kawaida. 2 (also ~ of nature) mtu/mnyama au mmea usio wa kawaida (k.m. mbuzi mwenye miguu mitano); dubwana, dubwasha. vi,vt (sl) ~ out -wa na mhemko, pandwa na mori (kama vile kutokana na madawa ya kulevya). ~ out n hali ya kupoteza akili kwa sababu ya madawa ya kulevya. ~ish adj -a kioja. ~ishly adv. ~ishness n. ~y adj.

freckle n 1 doa katika ngozi (kutokana na jua). 2 (pl) ~s mabakabaka. vt,vi pata/sababisha madoa katika ngozi.

free

free adj 1 (of a person) huru; -ungwana; -siofungwa. ~man n muungwana. ~ born n, adj mtu huru. 2 (of a state, its citizens, and institutions) huru, -nayojitawala. 3 -siozuiwa; huria, -lioachwa huru. allow somebody/give somebody/ have a ~ hand -pa mtu/ ruhusu mtu/-wa na uhuru wa kufanya jambo bila kushauriana na mwingine/ wengine. ~ agent n mtendaji huria (awezaye kutenda jambo bila kizuizi). F~ church n Kanisa Huria; Kanisa lisilo chini ya udhibiti wa dola/serikali. ~ enterprise n uchumi huria. ~-and-easy adj bila taadhima. ~ fall n kuanguka/kujirusha toka kwenye ndege bila mwavuli (mpaka unapohitajiwa). ~ fight n mapigano ambayo yeyote aliyepo aweza kujiunga; mapigano yasiyo na kanuni. ~-for-all ugomvi/majadiliano huria (ambayo yeyote anaweza kutoa maoni bila kuzuiwa). ~ hand adj (of drawings) -liochorwa kwa mkono tu (bila kutumia vifaa kama rula, bikari); -a kukakata. ~ handed adj karimu; si mkono wa birika. ~ hold n (leg) umilikaji ardhi bila masharti. ~ holder n mmilikaji ardhi asiyekuwa na masharti. ~house n (GB) kilabu cha pombe za aina zote. ~ labour n wafanyakazi wasio wanachama wa vyama vya wafanyakazi. ~ lance n (in middle ages) mamluki; mwandishi/ mtengenezaji filamu huria (anayetoa huduma zake popote). vi fanya kazi ya uandishi huria. ~ liver n mwanisi: mtu ajiingizaye kwenye raha (hasa ya chakula na vinywaji) bila kizuizi. ~ living n adj maisha ya anasa. ~ love n (old use) uhusiano wa mapenzi bila kuoana; mapenzi huria. ~ kick n (football) mpira wa adhabu. ~ port n bandari huria (ambayo wafanyibiashara wote wanaweza kuitumia bila vizuizi vya kodi n.k.). ~ range adj (of poultry) -a kienyeji; -siofungiwa ndani. ~

free

speech n uhuru wa kusema. ~ spoken adj bila kuficha mawazo; -liosemwa kwa bahati. ~ standing adj -siotegemezwa popote. ~ stone n jiwe mchanga. ~ style n (swimming) mashindano yasiyo na mkambi maalumu. ~ thinker n mtu asiyefuata mafundisho ya dini ya asili bali atumiaye mantiki. ~ thinking adj bila kufuata mapokeo ya vitabu vya dini. ~ thought n fikra zisizofuata mapokeo ya dini. ~-trade n biashara huria (bila vikwazo vya kodi, ushuru). ~-translation n tafsiri isiyo ya neno kwa neno. ~-verse n shairi guni. ~-way n (US) baraste. ~-wheel vi enda kwa baiskeli bila kupiga pedali, (fig) tenda/ishi kwa kujiamulia. ~-will n hiari (ya moyo), utashi. ~-will adj -a hiari. 4 ~ from bila. ~ of nje ya; bila. 5 bure, pasipo malipo admission ~ kiingilio bure ~ of income tax pasipo malipo ya kodi ya mapato get for ~ pata kitu bure. ~ list n orodha ya watu wa kuingia bure; orodha ya vitu vinavyoweza kuingia bila kulipiwa ushuru wa forodha; ~ on board n (abbr fob) (comm) huduma hadi bandarini. ~ pass n ruhusa ya kusafiri bure/bila kulipa nauli. ~-loader n (sl) doezi. 6 (of place or time) bila shughuli; isiyotumiwa (of persons) bila kazi. have one's hands ~ -wa bila shughuli; -wa katika hali ya kuweza kujiamulia mambo. 7 -ja/toa kwa wingi a ~ flow of water mtiririko wa maji mengi. 8 bila aibu/kizuizi. make ~ with tumia kitu bila aibu (kama chako). 9 make somebody ~ of -pa mtu haki ya uwanachama wa kikundi, uraia n.k. ~man n mtu aliyepewa haki ya uraia wa jiji. vt ~ (from/of) 1 weka huru, komboa; okoa. 2 ondosha; komesha, batilisha ~ a country of cholera komesha kipindupindu katika nchi. 3 ondolea kizuizi/shida/matata. ~d man n mtumwa aliyeachiwa

freebooter

huru. ~dom n 1 uhuru the ~dom of the seas (international law) haki ya meli kusafiri baharini bila kuingiliwa na manowari give a friend the ~dom of one's house -pa rafiki ruhusa ya kutumia nyumba kama yake. 2 hiari, chaguo. 3 give/receive the ~dom of a town/city -pa mtu/pokea haki zote za uraia wa mji/jiji. ~domfighter n mpigania uhuru.

freebooter n haramia (wa baharini).

Freemason n mwanachama wa chama cha siri cha kusaidiana. ~ry n 1 mfumo wa chama hicho. 2 kuoneana huruma na kusaidiana baina ya watu wenye kazi moja na wa jinsi moja.

freeze vt,vi 1 ganda. freezing point n kiwango cha kuganda. 2 ~ (of liquids) ganda. make one's blood ~ ogofya. 3 ona baridi sana. 4 ~ (over/up) ganda, fanya/tia baridi sana; gandisha; funika na barafu frozen food chakula barafu. freezing mixture mchanganyiko wa kugandishia. 5 dhibiti price freezing (fin) kusimamisha bei. 6 ~ somebody out (colloq) ondosha/zima mtu kwenye biashara, jamii n.k. kwa mashindano/kutomjali n.k. 7 ~ on to something (colloq) shikilia kitu kwa nguvu. 8 simama tuli, tulia k.m. mnyama ili kutoshtua. ~ up (of an actor) kutoweza kusema/kufanya kitu kwenye jukwaa. n 1 kipindi cha majira ya baridi sana. 2 (fin) udhibiti mkali, usimamishaji wa mapato, mishahara n.k. 3 deep-~ n sehemu ya friji ya kugandishia. ~r n friza; mashine ya barafu; chumba cha barafu.

freight n 1 (nauli ya) uchukuzi wa mizigo. 2 shehena, mizigo. ~ liner n meli ya mizigo. ~ train n (US) treni ya mizigo. vt ~ with pakia mizigo (melini); peleka/chukua mizigo. ~er n meli/ndege ya mizigo. French adj -a Kifaransa; -a Wafaransa; -a Ufaransa. take ~ leave jiondokea bila kutoa taarifa au kuruhusiwa. ~ chalk n jasi. ~

fresh

dressing n masala ya mafuta na siki. ~ fries n (pl. see chips n); ~ horn n tarumbeta sikio. ~ window n dirisha kubwa (liwezalo kutumika kama mlango). n Kifaransa. the ~ n Wafaransa. ~ man/woman n Mfaransa. ~ kiss n kufyonzana ulimi. ~ letter n mpira, kondomu.

frenzy n wazimu; mhemuko. vt (usu in pp) tia wazimu/kichaa/mhemuko. frenzied adj -enye wazimu/ kichaa. frenziedly adv.

frenetic adj -enye wayowayo, -enye msukosuko/kiherehere sana; -enye wazimu.

frequent vt enda (mahali) mara kwa mara; -wa/onekana (mahali) mara kwa mara/kwa kawaida frogs ~ wet place vyura kwa kawaida huonekana mahali penye unyevunyevu adj -a mara nyingi; -a mara kwa mara, -a kawaida. ~ly adv. frequency n 1 marudio, kufanyika mara kwa mara. 2 idadi ya marudio frequency meter kipimo cha idadi ya marudio.

fresco n 1 fresko: uchoraji wa sanamu ukutani (wakati chokaa/lipu ingali mbichi). 2 picha/sanamu iliyochorwa namna hiyo. vt chora sanamu kwa namna hiyo.

fresh adj 1 -bichi; -pya ~ milk maziwa mabichi. ~man n mwanafunzi mpya wa chuo kikuu. 2 (of food) -siotiwa chumvi; -siotiwa kwenye kopo/kugandishwa; (of water) -baridi; -sio ya bahari ~ water fish samaki wa maji baridi. 3 -pya au tofauti. break ~ ground (fig) anza kitu kipya; pata habari mpya. 4 (of air, wind, weather) safi; baridi; mwanana. ~ breeze/wind n upepo mwanana. 5 -enye afya; -a nguvu; -a kupendeza a ~ complexion sura ya kupendeza (ionyeshayo afya). 6 (US colloq) safihi, fyosi adv. (in hyphened compounds) sasa hivi ~-caught fish samaki aliyevuliwa sasa hivi. ~ly adv (only with pp, without hyphen) sasa hivi ~ly picked tomatoes

nyanya zilizochumwa sasa hivi. ~er n see ~man. ~ness n. ~en vi,vt 1 burudika; tia/pata nguvu. 2 zidi, kazana the breeze ~ened upepo ulizidi. ~et n kijito kidogo.

fret1 vi,vt 1 (harass) -wa na wasiwasi,jisumbua; -pa taabu, hangaisha. 2 chakaza, kwa kusugua au kutafuna. n wasiwasi; wahaka. ~ful adj -sio ridhika; -enye kiherehere. ~fully adv.

fret2 vt tia nakshi (kwa kuuchimba

ubao). ~saw n msumeno wa nakshi. ~-work n ubao uliotiwa nakshi kwa kuchimbwa.

fret3 n vituta gitaa (vya kuelekezea

mahali pa kubonyeza waya wa gitaa, gambusi n.k.).

Freudian adj -a nadharia za udodosi nafsi za Sigmund Freud. ~ slip n (colloq) kujikwaa, kuteleza ulimi.

friable adj -a kupukutika kwa urahisi. friability n.

friar n mtawa (wa kiume). ~y n

nyumba ya watawa hawa.

fricasee n nyama/kuku wa kupaka (anayekaangwa na kufanywa mchuzi).

friction n msuguano (wa vitu au mawazo).

Friday n Ijumaa Good ~ n Ijumaa Kuu. man ~ n mtumishi mwaminifu (kutokana na hadithi ya Robinson Kruso).

fridge n see refrigerator

fried pp, pt of fry.

friend n 1 rafiki, sahibu. be ~s with/

make ~s/make a ~ of fanya urafiki. a ~ in need is a ~ in deed akupendaye kwa dhiki ndiye rafiki. 2 tabia au kitu kinachosaidia. 3 msaidizi, mfadhili. 4 F ~ n (rel) mwanachama wa Ushirika wa Marafiki. ~liness n. ~ly adj -a kirafiki, -ema be ~ly to a cause wa rahisi kukubali; wa tayari kusaidia. ~ly nation n taifa rafiki in a ~ly way kirafiki F~ly Society Chama cha kusaidiana. ~ship n urafiki, usuhuba.

frieze n ukanda wa nakshi uwekwao

kiambazani (agh. juu).

frigate n (GB) manowari sindikiza;

(US) manowari ya ukubwa wa kati.

fright n 1 hofu, tisho. get a ~ shtuka. give somebody a ~ shtusha mtu. 2 (colloq) mtu/kitu cha kuchekesha. vt (poet) tisha. ~en vt ogofya, shtua, tisha.~ en somebody into something tisha mtu kufanya kitu ~ en away kimbiza, fukuza. ~ened adj -liotishwa. ~ful adj 1 -a kutisha; -a kitisho, -a kuogofya. 2 (unpleasant) -baya, -a kuchukiza. ~fully adv sana.

frigid adj 1 baridi ~ zone ukanda wa baridi. 2 (of a woman) hanithi, -sio na ashiki. 3 (of manner) baridi, si -kunjufu. ~ly adv. ~ity n.

frill n 1 marinda ya pindo. 2 (pl) madoido put on ~s deka, fanya madaha. vt tia, funga virinda vikunjo/kunjamana. ~ing n marinda. ~ed adj -enye virinda. ~ adj (colloq) -enye urembo/marinda mengi.

fringe n 1 matamvua; taraza. 2 shore. 3 ukingo, pembezoni, pembeni. ~ area n mpakani. ~ benefits n marupurupu. ~ group n kikundi ndani ya kundi; (fig) sehemu isiyo muhimu sana. vt, vi tia matamvua, tarizi; -wa mpaka/ukingo.

frippery n mavazi ya umaridadi kupita kiasi; takataka; (pl) mapambo hafifu/ya ovyo (kwenye nguo, nyumba n.k.).

frisk vt,vi 1 chachawa, randa, rukaruka. 2 papasa (kutafuta silaha n.k.). n mruko, mchezo (wa kurukaruka). ~iness n. ~y adj.

frisson n (F) msisimko.

fritter1 vt ~something away/(down) fuja, poteza.

fritter2 n kaimati.

frivol vt,vi 1 fanya upuuzi, shughulika na mambo yasiyo na maana. 2 ~ away one's time/money poteza wakati/fedha kipuuzi. ~ous adj 1 -a kipuuzi. 2 (of persons) -sio na makini; -enye kupenda anasa; puuzi.

frizz

~ity n 1 upuuzi. 2 (pl) maneno/ mambo yasiyo na maana. ~ly adj.

frizz vt (of hair) sokota; sokoteka. n hali ya kusokoteka. ~y adj.

frizzle vt,vi 1 toa sauti ya kukaanga

kwa mafuta. 2 kaanga; chachatika.

fro adv. to and ~ kwenda na kurudi; mbele na nyuma.

frock n 1 gauni. 2 kanzu, vazi la mtawa.

frog1 n chura. have ~ in the throat

koroma. ~man n mpiga mbizi. ~ march vt chukua (mfungwa) kifudifudi kwa kushikwa na watu wanne; sukuma mtu mbele (kwa kushika mikono yake nyuma). ~gy adj.

frog2 n ala, kipande cha ukanda cha

kuchomeka upanga au singe.

frolic n 1 kuchezacheza. 2 masihara, mzaha. ~king n kuchezacheza, kurukaruka. ~some adj.

from (prep) 1 (from a place, starting point) toka, kutoka he is ~ Tarime ametoka Tarime he is ~ home ametoka nyumbani where are you ~ umetoka wapi? 2 (starting a period of time) in the past tangu ~ childhood tangu utotoni ~ that day tangu siku ile ~ the beginning to the end tangu mwanzo hadi mwisho; (in the future) kuanzia ~ tomorrow kuanzia kesho. 3 (showing giver, sender etc) kutoka kwa a letter ~ my mother barua kutoka kwa mama yangu. 4 (separation, removal, prevention, escape) toka released ~ prison achiliwa kutoka gerezani refrain ~ laughing jizuia kucheka a shelter ~the rain kinga ya mvua. 5 (showing lower limit) kuanzia mangoes sell ~ shs 10/= embe zinauzwa kuanzia shilingi kumi. 6 (source taken from) -tokana na; kutoka kwa ideas drawn ~ Shaaban Robert mawazo yanayotokana na Shaaban Robert. 7 (material used in process) the bridge is made ~ steel daraja limetengenezwa kwa chuma (change) the price has risen ~ 20/= to 30/=

bei imepanda kutoka sh 20/= hadi 30/=. 8 (distinction or difference) distinguish the good ~ the bad pambanua wema na ubaya (reason, cause, motive) kwa sababu ya what does it stem ~? sababu yake nini? ~ fatigue kutokana na uchovu. 9 (judging by) kwa kuangalia, kutokana na ~ her appearance you would think she was young kwa kuangalia umbo lake ungedhani ni kijana. 10 (with adv & prep phrases) ~ above/below toka juu/chini. ~ afar toka mbali. ~ over there toka kule.

frond n kuti.

front n 1 the ~ mbele; upande ulio

muhimu. ~ page news n habari muhimu (ziwekwazo ukurasa wa kwanza wa gazeti). (be) in the ~ rank (fig) -wa mashuhuri; julikana. ~ runner n anayeongoza; (in elections etc) -enye kuelekea kushinda. come to the ~ (fig) jitokeza; julikana, fahamika. in ~ adv mbele. in ~ of prep mbele ya. 2 (war) medani, uwanja. (fig) domestic ~ n (colloq) nyumbani. 3 barabara ya ufukoni/ pwani. 4 have the ~ (to do something) -wa juvi, thubutu (kwa ubaya). put on/show/ present a bold ~ kabili jambo kwa ujasiri. 5 (shirt) ~ n kifua. 6 (theatre) ukumbi. 7 (met) mpaka baina ya tungamo hewa ya baridi na ya uvuguvugu. 8 (poet, rhet) paji, uso. 9 kiongozi au kikundi cha watu kinachoficha njama za mtu fulani. 10 (polit.) umoja. vt,vi 1 tazama; elekea the hotel ~s the ocean hoteli inaelekea bahari. 2 (old use) kabili, pinga. ~age n 1 upande wa mbele wa (nyumba, shamba). 2 upande unaoelekea barabarani (njiani n.k.). ~al adj -a mbele ~ al attack shambulio la ana kwa ana, pigo la usoni. n mbele. ier n 1 mpaka ~disputes ugomvi wa mpaka. ~ier(s) man n mtu wa mpakani; mwanzilishi wa makazi karibu na

mpaka. 2 (fig) kikomo; mpaka (kati ya yanayofahamika na yasiyofahamika). ~ispiece n picha ya mwanzo kitabuni.

frost n 1 jalidi. ~-bite n ugonjwa wakuganda tishu kwa jalidi. ~-bitten adj -enye ugonjwa wa jalidi. ~-bound adj (of the ground) -enye jalidi. 2 theluji nyembamba. 3 (colloq) jambo lisilofanikiwa. vt,vi 1 gandisha; (of cake) ikiza. 2 ua, haribu mimea kwa jalidi. 3 fifisha kioo kisione. 4 ~ (over/up) funika kwa theluji, jalidi. ~ing n kuikiza. ~y adj 1 -a baridi kali. 2 (fig) -sio kunjufu; baridi. ~ily adv. ~iness n.

froth n 1 povu, fuo. 2 (folly) upuuzi.

vt,vi toa povu, foka, umuka. ~y adj. ~ily adv. ~iness n.

froward adj (arch) -kaidi; -korofi; -asi, -siosikia.

frown vi 1 kunja kipaji. 2 ~ on/upon chukia; sinya, -topendelea gambling is very much ~ed upon here kamari haipendelewi kabisa hapa. ~ing n. ~ingly adv.

frowsty adj -enye hewa nzito; -a kuvu. frowzy adj 1 -a kunuka, -enye uvundo. 2 chafu, kuukuu.

froze pp,pt of freeze.

fructify vt,vi zaa (mmea); zalisha, rutubisha, (fanya) kutoa faida (mavuno); fanikisha. fructification n.

frugal adj ~ (of) wekevu, -angalifu

(hasa katika matumizi ya chakula/ fedha); -a kudunduiza. ~ly adv. ~ity n.

fruit n 1 tunda. ~ cake n keki ya matunda. ~ fly n nzi-tunda ~ fritter (s) n kaimati ya tunda. ~ salad n saladi ya matunda. the ~s of the earth mazao ya ardhi. (fig often pl) faida. 2 mafanikio; matokeo. 3 ~-machine n (GB colloq) mashine (ya kuchezesha kamari ya sarafu). ~erer n muuza matunda. ~ful adj -a kuzaa matunda; -a faida; (fig) -enye matokeo mazuri. ~fully adv. ~fulness n. ~less adj bure, -sio na matunda; (fig) -sio na mafanikio.

~lessly adv. ~le(s)sness n. ~y adj 1 -a kama tunda. 2 (colloq) -a kuchekesha (agh kwa mambo ya ngono). 3 (colloq) kali, zito He has a ~y voice ana sauti nzito. ~ion n 1 kufaulu; kupevuka. 2 kuzaa matunda; kupata mafanikio.

frumenty n uji wa ngano.

frump n mtu anayevaa mitindo ya

zamani isiyovutia. ~ish adj. ~ y adj.

frustrate vt zuia mtu asifanye atakavyo, vunja moyo, katisha tamaa; pinga (mipango isifanyike). frustration n.

fry1 vt,vi kaanga fried chicken kuku wa kukaangwa. ~ing-pan n kikaango. out of the ~ing-pan into the fire toka katika tatizo moja na kuingia jingine kubwa zaidi, ruka majivu ukanyage makaa ~er/frier kuku mchanga afaaye kwa kukaanga.

fry2 n 1 samaki wachanga. 2 small ~ chekechea; watu wasio muhimu.

fuck vt,vi (taboo word sl) tomba. ~

about zubaa; chezacheza. ~ (it)! tamko la kuonyesha hasira, vuruga. ~ off toka. ~ something up haribu. ~ all n bure I did ~ all nilifanya kazi bure, sikufanya kitu. n kutomba I dont care/give a ~ sijali kitu/kabisa. ~er n mpumbavu. ~ing adj. ~ing well adv hasa, hakika.

fuddle vt pumbaza, lewesha. get ~d

lewa. n ulevi, kuchanganyikiwa.

fuddy-duddy n (colloq) mzee msumbufu; zee.

fudge n 1 peremende laini ya maziwa, sukari na chakleti. 2 interj (dated) upuuzi. 3 udanganyifu katika kazi. vi,vt 1 vuka mpaka; danganya; ibia. 2 -totimiza ahadi, shindwa; kwepa.

fuel n fueli (k.m. kuni, makaa, mafuta n.k.); (fig)kichochezi, kichochea. vt, vi tia/pata fueli. add ~ to the flames chochea/palilia.

fug n ufukuto (wa hewa mbaya chumbani), hewa nzito. ~gy adj -enye ufukuto.

fugacious adj -a kupita, -a kutoweka (baada ya muda mfupi). fugacity n.

fugitive n ~ (from) mtoro; mkimbizi

adj 1 -a kupita. 2 -toro.

fulcrum n egemeo (la wenzo).

fulfil vt timiza, maliza, kamilisha. ~ment n.

fulgent adj (poet or rhet) -a kung'aa, -a kuwaka, -enye mwangaza.

fuliginous adj -enye masizi; -a giza kidogo.

full1 adj 1 ~ (of) -liojaa; tele. ~ up pomoni; (colloq) (from excessive eating) -liovimbiwa. 2 ~ of -liokaa akilini, -a kushughulisha/kufikiria mno she was ~ of a trip safari ilimkaa sana akilini he is ~ of himself anajipenda, anajivuna. 3 nene, kibonge, tipwatipwa a girl with a ~ figure msichana tipwatipwa, -liojaa. 4 (of clothes) pana, -a kuvalika kwa urahisi. 5 -nayofikia kiwango kinachohitajika; -enye kukomaa; -zima. 6 kamili. 7 (phrases and compounds) at ~ speed kwa kasi zote. in ~ kikamilifu. in ~ career -lio katika upeo wa maendeleo. to the ~ kwa ukamilifu. ~ back n (in football) mlinzi, beki. ~ blooded adj shababi, -enye nguvu na uchangamfu; menyu. ~ blown adj (of flowers) -liochanua. ~ board n (in a hotel) -enye kutoa malazi na chakula. ~ dress n vazi rasmi ~-dress rehearsal zoezi lenye mavazi rasmi. ~ face adj uso kwa uso, uelekeano wa ana kwa ana. ~ fashioned adj (trade use, of garments) -a kupima, -liotengenezwa kwa kufuata gimba. ~ fledged adj (of a bird) -enye kuweza kuruka; (fig) -liokubuhu, -liotopea. ~ grown adj -liokomaa. ~ house n kujaa kabisa. ~ length adj (of a portrait) -zima, -nayoonyesha -ote; -a urefu wa kawaida. ~ marks n (pl) alama zote. ~ moon n mwezi mchimbu/mpevu. ~ page n ukurasa mzima. ~ scale adj (of drawings, plans etc) -a kipimo sawa na kitu chenyewe; halisi;

(colloq) kamili. ~ stop n nukta, kituo kikubwa. come to a ~ stop simama kabisa. ~ time n kamili adj -a kudumu, -a muda wote. ~ time worker n mtumishi wa kudumu. ~y adv 1 kwa ukamilifu; kabisa. 2 angalau. ~ness n. in the ~ness of time kwa wakati uliopangwa/ tegemewa; mwishowe.

full2 vt takasa nguo. ~ler n mtakasa

nguo. ~ers earth n udongo wa mfinyanzi (wa kutakasia vitambaa).

fulminate vi foka; vuvumka; lipuka. ~ (against) kemea, pinga vikali, shutumu. fulminant adj -enye kuvuvumka. fulmination n. fulminator n. fulminatory adj.

fulness n see fullness.

fulsome adj (of praise, flattery, etc) mno, -enye kuvisha kilemba cha ukoka ~ praise sifa za kinafiki/ uongo. ~ly adv.

fumarole n ufa mdogo kwenye mlima wa volkano (unapopitia mvuke).

fumble vt,vi 1 papasa, tafutatafuta. 2 babaisha, babia; shughulikia jambo kwa wasiwasi (bila kujiamini). ~r n.

fume n (US pl) 1 harufu kali ya moshi; mvuke mzito, fukizo. 2 (liter) hangaiko, kiherehere. 3 hasira, ghadhabu. vt,vi 1 ~ (at) toa mvuke; fuka moshi pass away in ~s kasirika; (fig) foka, onyesha hasira, kasirika. 2 (of wood, etc) tia moshi, fukiza. fumigate vt fukiza, tia buhuri ~ tomato plants fukiza miche ya nyanya. fumigation n ufukizaji. fumigator n.

fun n 1 kujifurahisha; burudani, mchezo, raha there is plenty of ~ out here kuna burudani nyingi sana hapa I don't see the ~ of it ni kipi cha kuchekesha. have ~ furahia; starehe. ~-fair n kiwanja cha michezo. ~ and games (colloq) mzaha, burudani za kuchangamsha. make ~ of; poke ~ at fanyia mzaha, tania; dhihaki. for/in ~ kwa utani, kwa mzaha, kwa

kujifurahisha. 2 jambo/mtu anayefurahisha, kichekesho. 3 (attrib. colloq) -a kuchekesha a ~ hat kofia ya kuchekesha/kufurahisha. ~ny adj 1 -a kuchekesha he is trying to be ~ny anajaribu kufanya mzaha. a ~ ny man n mtu wa kuchekesha; mcheshi. 2 -geni, -a ajabu -sio sawa; -gumu kufahamika there is something ~ny about this letter kuna jambo lisiloeleweka katika barua hii. ~ny -bone n mfupa wa kiko unaopitisha neva-ulna. ~ny business n (sl) udanganyifu. ~ny farm n (sl) hospitali ya magonjwa ya kichwa/ akili. the ~nies n (pl) katuni. ~nily adv ~nily enough ajabu ni kamba. ~ niness n.

funambulist n mwana sarakasi (anayetembea juu ya kamba).

function n 1 shughuli, kazi ~s of marketing shughuli za mauzo. 2 (ceremony) tamasha, adhimisho. 3 (maths) namba tegemezi. 4 kazi. vt fanya kazi; faa; shughulika the telephone is not ~ing simu haifanyi kazi. ~al adj -a kufaa kazi; -enye kuathiri/inayohusu kazi; -a kutenda; -a kazi maalum. ~al head n kiongozi mtendaji. ~alism n utenzi, utendaji: kanuni/nadharia inayodai kuwa kazi ya kitu itawale muundo na vifaa vyake. ~alist n. ~ary n (pl ~ ries) (often derog) mtendaji (wa shughuli za kiofisi), mtenzi mrasimu.

fund n 1 (of commonsense/humour/ amusing stories) hazina a ~ of funny stories hazina ya hadithi za kufurahisha. 2 (often pl) mfuko wa fedha, hazina (kwa makusudi maalum). school ~s n mfuko wa shule. public ~s n mfuko wa serekali; fedha ya serikali. reserve ~s n mfuko wa akiba. ~ raising n kuchangisha fedha. no ~s n taarifa (ya benki) kuwa mwandika hundi hana fedha kwenye akaunti yake. vt 1 fadhili, gharimia. 2 (fin) badili deni la muda mfupi kuwa la muda mrefu kwa riba maalum.

fundamental adj ~ (to) -a asili; -a

msingi; -a muhimu n msingi; asili; kanuni. the ~s n misingi na kanuni. ~ly adv. ~ism n hifadhi ya misingi ya dini ya Kikristo, ulokole. ~ist n mfuasi wa misingi ya kale ya dini ya Kikristo religious ~ists waumini wakereketwa.

funeral n 1 mazishi; maziko provide a ~ zika attend a ~ hudhuria mazishi perform ~ service (Muslims) soma talakini. 2 (attrib use) kwa/-a mazishi/maziko a ~ procession msafara wa mazishi a ~ parlor (US) ofisi inayoshughulikia mazishi. it's/that's my/your ~ (colloq) hilo ni shauri langu/lako. funereal adj 1 -a (kufaa) mazishi. 2 -a huzuni, -a kusikitisha.

fungus n ~es 1 ukungu, kuvu. 2 (mushroom like growth) uyoga, kiyoga. fungicide n kiua kuvu, dawa ya kuvu. fungoid adj -a kuvu. fungous adj -a kuvu, -nayoletwa na kuvu. fungal adj.

funicular adj ~ (railway) treni iliyo katika mwinamo/mteremko, (inayoendeshwa kwa waya na injini).

funk n (colloq) 1 hofu kuu, woga

mkubwa be in a ~ ogopa sana. 2 mwoga. ~-hole n handaki; mbinu za kuepea kulitumikia jeshi. v,vi 1 ogopa, onyesha woga; kwepa/ shindwa (kwa woga) we ~ ed telling him the truth tulikwepa/shindwa kumwambia ukweli. ~y adj (US sl) (of music) -enye hisia na mdundo.

funnel n 1 bomba, faneli. 2 (of ship

etc) dohani two/three ~ed -enye dohani mbili/tatu. vt,vi penya/pita kama katika faneli/dohani.

fur n 1 manyoya (ya mnyama), nywele ndogondogo. make the ~ fly fanya fujo. ~ and feather n wanyama na ndege wa manyoya. 2 ngozi ya wanyama yenye manyoya (hasa iliyotengenezwa nguo) (attrib) a ~ coat koti la manyoya. 3 utando (ukoga, uchafu) wa ulimi. ~ry adj -enye manyoya; -enye utando.

~rier n mwuzaji/mtengenezaji ngozi za manyoya.

furbish vt ng'arisha, sugua, safisha;

fanya kama mpya.

furcate adj -a panda; -a kugawanyika. furcation n.

furl vt,vi (of sails, flags, umbrellas etc) kunja; kunjika.

furlong n yadi 220, mita 201, sehemu moja ya nane (_) ya maili moja.

furlough n likizo, livu (ya kupumzika kwa watumishi wanaokaa ughaibu).

furnace n 1 tanuu. 2 kalibu blast ~ tanuu house-heating ~ tanuu la joto.

furnish vt ~ something (to somebody); ~somebody/something with something toa/-pa/patia, pasha mtukitu/habari; nunua/weka samani/fanicha. ~ed with -enye samani/fanicha. ~ed house n nyumba yenye fanicha. ~ings n (pl) fanicha na vyombo.

furniture n fanicha, samani.

furore (US furor) n makelele, vifijo create a ~ piga vifijo, tia msisimko.

furrow n 1 mfuo; mtaro; mkondo. 2

(wrinkle, crease) kunjo, finyo, kunyanzi. vt tengeneza mfuo; tia makunyanzi (fig) ~ one's brow kunja uso.

furry adj see fur.

further adv,adj 1 (often used for farther) mbali, mbele zaidi don't go ~ than here usiende mbali zaidi ya hapa. 2 (not interchangeable in this sense with farther) zaidi; ziada what ~ news do you have una habari gani zaidi until ~ notice hadi baadaye. 3 (also ~ more) zaidi ya hayo, pia vt saidia; endeleza ~ your studies endeleza masomo yako. ~ance n maendeleo; ukuzaji. ~more adv juu ya hayo, zaidi ya hayo, zaidi. ~ most adj mbali kabisa.

furtive adj 1 -a siri, -a kufichaficha, -a kichini chini a ~ glance mtazamo wa siri. ~ly adv. ~ness n.

fury n 1 (anger) ghadhabu, kiruu. 2 harara. furious adj -a ghadhabu, -enye hasira, -kali mno, -a nguvu

sana the fun became fast and furious mchezo ulipamba moto hasa get furious ghadhibika. furiously adv. 3 (of wind) dhoruba, tufani. 4 mwanamke mkali.

fuse vt,vi 1 yeyusha; yeyuka. 2 ungana; unganisha. 3 (electric) katika (waya wa fuzi). n (electric) fyuzi. time ~n fyuzi inayolipuka katika muda uliotegeshwa. fusibility n. fusible adj. fusion n kuunganisha; kuyeyusha; mchanganyiko. fusion bomb n bomu (kama) la haidrojeni.

fuselage n kiunzi cha ndege/eropleni.

fusillade n (US) mfululizo wa kupiga bunduki.

fuss n msukosuko; mhangaiko, wasiwasi, kiherehere. make a ~ hangaika; lalamika; ingiwa na wasiwasi. make a ~ of somebody sumbukia, hangaikia. kick up a ~ leta fujo kwa ajili ya mtu. ~pot n (colloq) machagu. vi,vt hangaisha; tia wasiwasi; hangaika; sumbuka sana. ~y adj -enye kuhangaika; -enye kusumbuka mno; -enye kuchagua; -enye madoido mno, -enye mapambo mno. ~ily adv. ~ iness n.

fustian n 1 kitambaa kizito cha pamba. 2 (fig) makeke; mikogo adj -a maringo; bure.

fusty adj 1 -enye kunuka ubichi/ ukuvu/ukungu/unyevunyevu. 2 (fig) -enye mawazo ya kizamani. fustiness n.

futile adj 1 -isioleta manufaa, -sio na maana, -isiyofanikiwa chochote. 2 (of persons') -siyefanya lolote la maana. futility n.

future adj -a baadaye, -takaokuja the ~ life ahera, kesho. n 1 wakati ujao. for the ~ kwa siku za baadaye. 2 mategemeo ya baadaye this job has no ~ kazi hii haina mategemeo. in ~ tangu leo, hapo baadaye. 3 (pl) (comm) bidhaa zilizonunuliwa lakini zitakazolipwa baadaye. ~less adj -isio na mafanikio baadaye. futurism n

fuze

usasa: falsafa na mtindo wa sanaa unaokwenda na wakati/upingao mambo ya zamani na ya mapokeo. futurist n msanii wa tapo la kilele. futuristic adj. futurity n (pl) futurities wakati ujao, matukio ya baadaye.

fuze n see fuse.

fuzz n 1 sufi, (kitu) timtimu. 2 the ~ n (US) (sl) polisi. ~y adj 1 timtimu, -enye kutuna na kujifumba; -liofunikwa na nywele za kipilipili. 2 (of image) -sio dhahiri, -siobainika au kutambulika sawasawa. ~iness n.

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INSTITUTE OF KISWAHILI RESEARCH, UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM, P. O. Box 35110, DAR-ES-SALAAM, TANZANIA.

İTaasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (TUKI) 2000 Second Edition 2000
ISBN 9976 911 29 7
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